Geography Case Studies (Theme 1)

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  • Created by: Debbix
  • Created on: 30-04-15 08:59

Rapid Population Growth - Niger

  • 1960: 1.7 million - 2008: 13.3 million
  • Expected to hit 56 million by 2050
  • Growth rate of 2.9%
  • Highest fertility rate in the world (7.1 births per woman)

Lower death rates because:

  • babies are inoculated against diseases
  • better supplies of clean water
  • people eat better diets
  • more clinics and hospitals
  • better health education
  • people enjoy better living conditions
  • women are becoming better educated

10-12 children are desired

Only 5% of people use contraception / family planning

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Population Decline - Russia

  • 2007: 143 million ~ 2050: 111 million
  • High death rate
  • Low birth rate
  • Low level of immigration
  • Life expectancy is low
  • Russian women: highly educated, do not want many/any children
  • One pensioner for every worker in 20 years' time
  • Male life expectancy at 59
  • More than one million Russians with AIDS
  • Russian death rates highest in peacetime
  • Lowest birth rates ever at 1.1 per woman
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Overpopulation - Nigeria

  • 140 million people
  • 70% living on less than one dollar a day
  • Occupies 3% of Africa, has 15% of Africans

Problems caused by overpopulation:

  • Not enough housing
  • Water and air pollution
  • Shortage of food and water
  • High crime rates
  • Not enough health care and education
  • Congested roads
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Underpopulation - Australia

  • 1901: 3.7 million - 2013: 23 million
  • Majority of country is uninhabitable desert
  • Area: 7,686,850km
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Low Population density - Namibia

  • GDP per person: US$ 5200 (low)
  • Population density of 2.5/km^2
  • Much of the country is desert with a hot, dry climate
  • Rainfall is sparse and erratic
  • Prolonged periods of drought
  • Economy is dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export, e.g. diamonds and uranium
  • Mining employs only 3% of the population
  • About half the population depend on subsistence agriculture
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High Population density - Japan

  • Population density: 339/km^2
  • Uneven population distribution
  • Most people live on Honshu Island
  • Most people live along the borders
  • Over two-thirds of Japan is mountainous, few people live here because:
  • Land is not suitable for farming
  • Isolated areas
  • Little work
  • Extreme climate
  • Most people live in high-density rural or urban areas because:
  • There is better land for farming (rural)
  • Better jobs (both)
  • Nicer climate (rural/both)
  • Better land for building (urban)
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Urbanisation in Peru - Lima

  • About 35% of Peru's 10 million people live in the capital city
  • 1940: 600 000 living in Lima, majority living in rural areas
  • Factors influencing migration to Lima from rural settlements:
  • Not enough agricultural land
  • Drought and other natural hazards
  • Low prices for agricultural products
  • Cannot afford clothes and food for children (dev.)
  • Not much opportunity for children to go to school
  • No running water, electricity or sewage disposal in many villages
  • What migrants expperience when they get to Lima
  • Racial discrimination
  • Separation from family
  • Better quality services e.g. water, electricity
  • Better schools fro migrants' children
  • low pay and ong working hours
  • Forced to live in self-built houses on the streets
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Urban Problems and Solutions - Cairo

  • 1950s: 2 million people - 2000: 18 million people
  • Lack of housing
  • Traffic congestion
  • Lack of jobs
  • Pollution
  • Attempts to solve urban problems in Cairo:
  • A modern metro system was built
  • The Greater Cairo Waste Water Project, extended and repaired the sewage system
  • People with donkey carts were licensed to collect and recycle garbage
  • Ring road built, encircling the city
  • New satellite and dormitory towns built around the city
  • Homes and public services were upgraded in the most run-down parts of the city
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Urban Sprawl - Atlanta

  • 1970: 1.4 million people - 2006: 5,138,000 people
  •  2000-2006 Increase by 1 million people
  • The fastest-growing metropolitan city in the USA
  • One-third was births, the rest from newcomers
  • Problems:
  • Population growth
  • Traffic congestion
  • Air pollution caused by traffic congestion (dev.)
  • Water quality worse, water quantity less
  • Less agricultural land
  • Loss of green space/ecosytems
  • More Impermeable surfaces
  • Cultural loss
  • Socio-economic division
  • "Hotlanta"
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