Human Geography Case Studies

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China's one-child policy

WHY WAS THE POLICY NEEDED?

To prevent famine and to reduce population growth.

HOW DID THEY MAKE PEOPLE FOLLOW THE POLICY?

  • People who followed the policy would receive 5-10% increase in salary.
  • Education of the child would be free.
  • People who ignored it, received 10% salary cut and massive fine.

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

  • 400 million fewer people in China
  • Better quality of life

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS?

  • Forced to have abortion
  • Ageing population
  • Children were spoilt
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Kerala's population policy in India

WHY WAS IT NEEDED?

To reduce high population growth.

WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES?

  • Free contraception and family planning
  • Improving education standards and introducing gender equality
  • Improving child health through vaccination programmes

WHAT ARE THE IMPACTS?

  • Infant mortality has decreased due to innoculations.
  • Birthrate is now 18 per 1000.
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UK: Ageing Population

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS?

  • The UK has 12 million pensioners
  • The propportion of people of 50 is reaching 50% of the population.

WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES?

  • Retirement age has increased from 65 to 68 for men and 60 to 65 for women.
  • Increased migration into the UK from eastern EU countries.
  • Shared parental leave between mothers and fathers.
  • Increase in private pensions rather than relying on state pensions.
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FRANCE: Ageing Population

WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES?

  • Three years paid parental leave, can be used by mothers and fathers.
  • Full time schooling starts at age of 3, fully paid by government.
  • Cheap day care for very young children.
  • More children you have the earlier you can retire.
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GERMANY: Ageing Population

WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES?

  • 1800 Euros per month parental leave.
  • Increased migration into the country from other EU countries.
  • Most industrialised European country.
  • Retirement age is set to increase soon.
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Poland Migration to UK after 2004

WHAT ARE THE PUSH FACTORS?

  • Contrast between the economies of the two nations.
  • Unemployment rate in Poland is over 40%.

WHAT ARE THE PULL FACTORS?

  • Availability of work
  • Polish workers could earn 4 or 5 times as much in the UK

WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE IMPACTS?

  • Banks and other services now operate Polish language facilities.
  • Return home with substantial savings.
  • Eastern European migrants contributed £2.5bn to the UK economy in 2005.

WHAT ARE THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS?

  • Less intelligent people left in the source (brain drain).
  • Offensive graffiti, abuse and violence in the UK.
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Afghanistan to EU

WHAT ARE THE PUSH FACTORS?

  • War since 2003-destruction of homes, schools and hospitals.
  • Government is struggling to remain in control from terrorist groups.
  • Very dry climate ruins agriculture and causes famine.

WHAT ARE THE PULL FACTORS?

  • Want to enjoy democratic governments where free speech is allowed and freedom to worship.
  • Jobs are available and there is housing, schools and education.

WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE IMPACTS?

  • Unpopular job vacancies fill up
  • Increase in taxpayers-help fund

WHAT ARE THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS?

  • Immigrants may claim benefits
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Southend-on-Sea, Essex, UK

WHAT WERE THE REASONS FOR DEVELOPMENT?

  • In the 1960s, the area started to lose tourists due to cheap package deals abroad.

WHAT WERE THE STRATEGIES?

  • A new town was built along the cliff.
  • The world's largest pier was built.
  • In the late 18th century, railway links with London were built meaning more tourists could come.
  • Sea Life Centre, Jubilee Beach, Adeventure Island built.
  • Rejuvenation with tourist information centre, Premier Inn, proposed Marine Plaza.
  • TNCs recently arrived.
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Safari and beach tourism in Kenya

WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE IMPACTS OF MASS TOURISM?

  • Tourists learn about the culture.
  • Multiplier effect-wide range of job opportunities for local Kenyans.
  • Encourages development of new infrastructure such as hotels, resorts and tourist attractions.

WHAT ARE THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF MASS TOURISM?

  • Locals are exploited-only £3 from every £40 spent in the Masai Mara Park goes to the locals.
  • Large tourist boats drop their anchors into the corals, off the coast of Mombasa.
  • Some tourists take piece of coral away as souvenirs-this doesn't aid the growth of marine environment and wildlife which thrive off the coral reefs.

WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES FOR MAINTAINING TOURISM AND REDUCING IMPACTS?

  • Master Plan: Diversify the country's tourist product range by opening up new avenues such as adventure activities on rivers and lakes.
  • Better distribution of tourist activities-reduces environmental pressure on tourist hot spots.
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Antarctica

WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE IMPACTS?

  • Tourists learn about marine biology and threats of climate change so they may become ambassadors for the area.

WHAT ARE THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS?

  • Tourists scare wildlife-penguins are likely to abandon eggs/young in order to escape humans.
  • Footpath erosion at honeypot sites.
  • Oil spills are a hazard to the Antarctic wildlife.

HOW DO THEY COPE WITH INCREASING NUMBERS?

  • IAATO governs the continent.
  • Tourists must stay at least 5m away from wildlife.
  • People are fined for littering.
  • No ships carrying over 500 passengers is permitted to land on the continent.
  • Visitors are not allowed to visit sites of Special Scientific Interest in order to preserve wildlife.
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Kapawi Lodge, Ecuador

HOW DOES ECOTOURISM BENEFIT THE ENVIRONMENT?

  • Tourist are taught how to look after the environment.
  • Building Kapawi lodge has prevented oil and gold mining companies to access the land.
  • Money from tourists goes back into the conservation of the area.

HOW DOES ECOTOURISM BENEFIT THE PEOPLE?

  • Kapawi Lodge gives Achuar people a fair share of tourism benefits.
  • Increase in money being brought into village-more children able to go to school.
  • Local people that work at the hotel learn about new skills and different types of medicine.

HOW DOES ECOTOURISM BENEFIT THE ECONOMY?

  • The lodge provides employment for local Indians as guides-they earn $150 (£75) a month.
  • Brings in large numbers of tourists to the country.
  • Oil companies have brought $130 billion dollars to Ecuador in 40 years.
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Haiti Earthquake, January 2010

CAUSES:

  • Stress built up between American and Carribean plate at conservative plate boundary.
  • Stress was released and there was a sudden slip along the fault which caused a earthquake.

IMPACTS:

  • 230,000 people killed
  • 180,000 homes destroyed
  • Cholera claimed lives
  • $11.5 billion in damage

RESPONSES:

  • Search and rescue
  • Aid arrived from abroad
  • World bank pledged $100 million
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Cahora Bassa Dam, Mozambique

BACKGROUND:

  • Begun by the Portuguese government of Mozambique in the 1960s
  • Only completed 3 decades later

BENEFITS:

  • Offers job opportunities for local people
  • Boosts national economy
  • A Kapenta fishery industry developed, harvesting 10,000 tonnes in 2003

DISADVANTAGES:

  • Only 1% of Mozambique's rural homes have a direct electricity supply
  • Does not benefit citizens at a local level
  • Local shrimp industry destroyed
  • Increases risk of flooding downstream
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Grameen Bank, Bangladesh

BACKGROUND:

  • Muhammad Yunus created the bank in Bangladesh
  • Specialises in lending small sums of money to the poorest people
  • Lent $1 billion to over 7 million people
  • Helps women to start their own businesses
  • 99% of loans are repaid

BENEFITS:

  • Income they make goes directly to their families and gets them out of poverty
  • Helped to reduce fertility and family size
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Safe water, Punjab

BACKGROUND:

  • Development aid money used for pumping stations and pipes to bring clean water to 250 villages and almost 1 million rural dwellers.
  • Community-based approach with local people involved in planning and construction
  • Women and children walked up to 6km to find water - took 3-6 hours per day.

BENEFITS:

  • Drop of over 90% in water-borne diseases
  • School enrolment up by 80%
  • Household incomes up by 20% - women have more time to generate income
  • More commercial attitudes
  • Lifestyles changing: women have more dignity
  • People who migrated to cities are returning
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Bulgaria and Germany

BULGARIA:

  • Communist past meant that standard of living for its citizens needs to improve.
  • Led to civil unrest and political corruption in the 1990s
  • Very mountainous which makes trading between different parts more difficult
  • Limits amount of farming
  • Imports (US$ 30 billion) greater than exports (US$ 19 billion)

GERMANY:

  • Europe's most industrialised and populous country
  • Strong export industry and high-tech goods
  • Exports (US$ 1400 billion) exceeds imports (US$ 1100 billion)
  • Established and maintained its good trade links with other European countries
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Urban II Fund

HOW IT WORKS:

  • Provides money for sustainable development in troubled districts of European cities (SEE) social and economic regeneration.

BENEFITS:

  • Improves living conditions
  • Creates jobs
  • Integrates people in society

PROBLEMS:

  • Expensive - €728.3 million spent helping 2.2 million people
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CAP - Common Agricultural Policy

HOW IT WORKS:

  • Makes sure there is enough food in Europe
  • Makes sure that farmers have good QoL
  • Makes sure people can afford the food (good price)

BENEFITS:

  • Guarantees the survival of rural communities where more than half of EU citizens live
  • Preserves countryside
  • Ensures reasonable prices

PROBLEMS:

  • Costs too much money (£34 billion a year) when only 5% of EU people are farmers
  • Only 1.6% of GDP comes from agriculture
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