Geograpahy WORLD AT RISK

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  • Created by: Helen
  • Created on: 28-03-13 17:04

GLOBAL HAZARDS

HAZARD = SOMETHING THAT IS A POTENTIAL THREAT TO HUMAN LIFE AND PROPERTY

NATURAL HAZARDS = TWO TYPES = GEOPHYSICAL HAZARDS - LAND PROCESSES

                                                                 HYDRO METEROLOGICAL - CLIMATE PROCESS

THE RISK OF DISASTER INCREASE AS FREQUENCY OR SEVERITY OF HAZARDS INCREASE AND PEOPLE'S CAPACITY TO COPE IS DECREASED.

RISK = HAZARDS X VULNERABILTY

               CAPACITY TO COPE

 

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HYDRO METEROLOGICAL HAZARDS BECOMING MORE FREQUENT

INCREASE IN HYDRO METEROLOGICAL HAZARD IS DUE TO THE INCREASING EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

HUMAN FACTORS

  • RAPID POPULATION GROWTH AND URBANISATION INCREASE PEOPLE VULNERABLE
  • INCREASING WORLD POVERTY - INCREASE VULNERABILITY
  • EXPLOITATION OF RESOURCES - DEFORESTATION INCREASED RISK OF FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES

PHYSICAL FACTORS

  • GLOBAL WARMING
  • EL NINO EVENTS - CHANGE GLOBAL WEATHER IN AN UNPREDICATBLE WAY
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DEATHS DECREASING ECONOMIC LOSS INCREASING

NUMBER OF DEATHS DECREASING DUE TO RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

  • PREDICTION - SOME HAZARDS PREDICTED - EG PATH OF HURRICAINES - ADVANCE WARNING PEOPLE CAN EVACUATE AND SECURE PROPERTY    
  • PREVENTION - CAN BE PREVENTED FROM BECOMING DISASTERS EG SANDBAGS TO PROTECT AGAINST FLOODING
  • PREPAREDNESS - EDUCATING PEOPLE HELPS REDUCE NUMBER OF DEATHS EG JAPAN HAVE PRACTICE EARTHQUAKE DRILL DAYS

TREND HAS LEVELLED OFF RECENTLY DUE TO THE NUMBER OF VULNERABLES INCREASING

GLOBAL ECONOMIC COSTS RISING

  • ACTUAL FINANCIAL COSTS AMOUNT OF MONEY LOST - BIG IN MEDC
  • RELATIVE FINANCIAL COST MONEY LOST RELATIVE TO PEOPLE HAVE MONEY TO START WITH - BIG IN LEDC - EFFECTS OF LOSS GREATER.
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HAZARD DISTRIBUTION

GEOPHYSICAL HAZARDS OCCUR NEAR PLATE BOUNDARIES

THICKER BUT LESS DENSE CONTINENTAL CRUST - ABOVE SEA LEVEL

THINNER BUT MORE DENSE OCEANIC CRUST - BELOW SEA LEVEL

PLATES MOVES BECAUSE OF CONVECTION CURRENTS IN THE MANTLE

VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES AT CONSTRUCTIVE

TWO PLATES MOVE APART - PLATES MOVE APART WHEN PRESSURE RELEASED AT BOUNDARY - RELEASE CAUSE MANTLE TO MELT - PRODUCES MAGMA - MAGMA LESS DENSE - RISES - ERUPT TO FORM VOLCANO - DONT MOVE APART UNIFORMLY - PRESSURE BUILDS - PRESSURE TOO MUCH - PLATE CRACKS - MAKES FAULT LINE (CALIFORNIA) - CAUSE AN EARTHQUAKE

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HAZARD DISTRIBUTION (2)

DESTRUCTIVE - TWO PLATES MOVING TOWARDS EACH OTHER

CONTINENTAL CRUST AND OCEANIC CRUST - MORE DENSE OCEANIC FORCED UNDER THE LESS DENSE CONTINENTAL - OCEANIC CRUST HEATED BY FRICTION - MELTS INTO MAGMA - MAGAMA LESS DENSE THAN CONTINETAL - RISE BACK - VOLCANOES - AS ONE PLATES MOVES UNDER THE OTHER THEY CAN GET STUCK - PRESSURE BUILDS - EARTHQUAKE.  THE PHILLIPINES        

                                                                                                                      

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HAZARD DISTRUBUTION (3)

CONSERVATIVE - PLATES MOVE PAST EACH OTHER

TWO PLATES GET LOCKED TOGETHER - PRESSURE BUILDS - CAUSES PLATES TO JERK PAST EACH OTHER - RELEASE ENERGY AS EARTHQUAKE - CALIFORNIA

SOME VOLCANOES OCCUR AWAY FROM PLATE BOUNDARIES

VOLCANOES CAN OCCUR AWAY FROM PLATE BOUNDARIES - HAWAII - VOLCANOES FORMED BY MAGMA RISING FROM ALRGE CHAMBER BENEATH CRUST - HAWAII - VOLCANIC HOTPSOT

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JAPANESE TSUNAMI 2011

DESTRUCTIVE SUBDUCTION - PACIFIC (O) SUBDUCTS UNDER NORTH AMERICAN PLATE (C) - JAPAN TRENCH - PACIFIC PLATE MOVES 3 AND QUARTER INCH PYRELEASED PRESSURE - TSUNAMI

11TH MARCH 2011 - EAST SHORE - 8.9 MAGNITUDE -  WAVES 20 FT - 500MPH - WAVES TRAVELLED 6MILES INLAND - 768,864 BUILDINGS DAMAGED - 111,944 BUILDINGS  DESTROYED - 21,234 DEAD - 5TH LARGEST RECORDED - DAIICHI POWER PLANT DAMAGED - NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS - 80,000 RESIDENTS EVACUATED - FARMING DESTROYED

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VOLCANOES

OCCURS DESTRUCTIVE & CONSTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARIES

PLUS - FORM NEW LAND (HAWAII) - CREATE FERTILE LAND (MINERALS) - MINING (MANY MINERALS - ATTRACT TOURISTS - MONEY AND EMPLOYMENT CREATED

NEGATIVES - DEATH - POLLUTION EMITTED (SULPHUR) - CAUSE CLIMATE CHANGE - DIP IN TEMPERATURES

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VOLCANOES: CASE STUDY ICELAND

CONSTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARY IN ATLANTIC OCEAN

EASY JET £40M LOSS - BA £15-20M LOSS PD - LUFTHANSA 1800 FLIGHTS GROUNDED - 110M CUBIC M TEPHRA EMITTED - ASH PLUME 30,000FT - INTERRUPTED FLIGHT PATH - 900000 FALL IN JET FUEL DEMAND - 800 EVACUATED (MULTWATER FLOODS)

BRITISH CITIZENS PICKED UP STRANDED TOURISTS - INSURANCE INDUSTRY COPE WITH LOSSES - UK GOVT AID - HMS ALBION PICKED TOURISTS UP

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TROPICAL CYCLONES

OCCUR OVER WARM WATER - SEA WATER ABOVE 26.5c - MOIST AIR RISE & CONDENSES - RELEASES ENERGY - INCREASE WIND SPEED

CYCLONES LOSE STRENGTH WHEN THEY MOVE OVER LAND - ENERGY SUPPLY FROM WARM WATER CUT OFF

MOST CYCLONES OCCUR BETWEEN 5 DEGREES & 30D NORTH & SOUTH OF EQUATOR

CYCLONES SPIN BECAUSE OF THE CORIOLIS EFFECT

DON'T OCCUR 0-5D EITHER SIDE OF EQUATOR - CORIOLOS EFFECT ISNT STRONG TO MAKE THEM SPIN - C.EFFECT IS WHAT MAKES THEM MOVE FROM EQUATOR

MOVE WESTWARDS DUE TO EAST - WEST WINDS IN THE TROPICS

KNOWN AS HURRICAINES & TYPHOONS    

HURRICAINE KATRINA                        

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DISASTER HOTPOST CASE STUDY - CALIFORNIA EQS (1)

CONSERVATIVE - N.AMERICAN PLATE & PACIFIC PLATE- TWO OR THREE EARTHQUAKES EACH YEAR 5.5+ ON RICHTER SCALE.

THE SAN ANDRES FAULT - FRACTURE BETWEEN PLATES - MAJOR CITIES LIE ON - LOS ANGELES & SAN FRANCISCO - MOVES 50MM EVERY YEAR - CALIFORNIA PRONE TO SEISMIC ACTIVTY - 100 - 150 EARTHQUAKES PY

7.1 EARTHQUAKE - 1989 -LOMA PRIETA EC - 63 DIED - 13757 INJURED - 1018 HOMES DESTROYED - 23408 DESTROYED - 366 BUSINESSES DESTROYED 3530 DAMAGED - DAMAGE TOTAL $6 BILLION

6.7 EARTHQUAKE - 1994 - SAN FERNANDO VALLEY - 57 DIED - 1500 INJURED - 12500 BUILDINGS DAMAGED - 9000 HOMES NO ELECTRICTY - 48500 NO WATER - 20000 NO GAS

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DISASTER HOTSPOT : CALIFORNIA (2)

DROUGHTS - CAUSED BY ANTI CYCLONES - LONG LASTING HIGH AIR PRESSURE WITH SINKING DRY AIR - MEANS NO RAIN - CAUSED BY LA NINA EVENTS - WHEN THE SURFACE WATER IN EASTERN PACIFIC COOLER - LESS EVAPORATION - LESS PRECIPATION - INCREASED WIND BLOWING FROM DESERT AREAS - DRY AIR = NO MOISTURE - CAUSE PRECIPTATION - EFFECT WILDFIRES - S.CALI - OCT 2007 - KILLED 22 - DESTROYED 1300 HOMES

TSUNAMIS - FLOOD COASTAL AREAS - CAUSED BY EARTHQUAKES - EARTHQUAKES UNDER PACIFIC OCEAN CAUSE TSUNAMIS - 1964 - OF COAST OF ALSKA - TSNUAMI STRIKED N.CALIFORNIA - KILLED 12 PEOPLE

LANDSLIDES - HILLY REGION - MANY SLOPES OVER 15D - 25 YEARS - 100 KILLED - LANDSLIDES TRIGGERED BY INTENSE RAINFALL - JAN 1982 HEAVY RAINFALL - SAN FRANCISCO BAY - THOUSANDS LOCALISED LAND SLIDES - 14 DEATHS

VOLCANOES - NO ERUPTION SINCE 1915 - VOLCANOES BEING MOINTERED FOR POTENTIAL ERUPTIONS.

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DISASTER HOTSPOT:CALIFORNIA (3)

CALIFORNIA WEALTHY BUT PARTS OF THE POPULATION VULNERABLE

70% CALIFORNIA'S POPULATION LIVE WITHIN 50KM OF FAULT LINE

A LOT OF BUILDING ON UNSTABLE LAND - SOIL LIQUEFICATION DURING EARTHQUAKES - DAMAGES BUILDINGS - INCREASES RISK OF LANDSLIDES - (LOMA PRIETA PROBLEM)

MANY BUILDING ALONG THE COAST VULNERABLE TO TSUNAMIS

WEALTHY STATE - VERY POOR AREAS IN - 20% OF RESIDENTS IN LA BELOW POVERTY LINE - LOWEST CAPACITY TO COPE

6TH LARGEST ECONOMY IN THE WORLD - 25 CALIFORNIAN COUNTIES HAVE INCOMES PC US $65000 - HUGE ECONOMIC LOSS

LARGE URBAN SETTLEMENTS - VULNERABLE IN EARTHQUAKE

MOST CALIFORNIANS INSURE HOUSES

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DISASTER HOTSPOT CASE STUDY THE PHILIPPINES

VOLCANOES - DESTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARY - PHILLIPINE PLATE BEING SUBDUCTED UNDER EURASIAN PLATE.

ISLANDS FORMED BY FOLDING AT BOUNDARY AND VOLCANOES FORMED FROM THE MAGMA THAT HAS RISEN

MOUNT PINATUBO - 1991 - 10KM EXCLUSION RAISED TO 30KM - LOTS EVACUATED - 9 JUNE - 58,000 EVACUATED - 12 JUNE - 200,000 EVACUATED - 15 JUNE DOME COLLAPSE - EFFECTIVE MOINTORING AND MANAGEMENT REDUCED EFFECTS - 350 DIED - 4300 INJURED - 77 LAHARS - SOME EVACUATED DIED IN DISEASED CAMPS - 80,000 HECTARES OF FARM BURNT - 500000 FARMERS LIVELIHOOD DISRUPTED - ECONOMIC LOSSES = US $710M

EARTHQUAKES - THE PHILLIPINE & THE EURASIAN LOCKED TOGETHER - PRESSURE BUILDS - PLATES JERK - EARTHQUAKE - ALSO OCCUR AT FAULT LINES - OCCUR DAILY CANT BE FELT

LUZON ISLAND - 1990 - 7.8 - KILLING OVER 1500 PEOPLE 

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DISASTER HOTSPOT: THE PHILIPPINES (2)

LANDSLIDES - TROPICAL MONSOON CLIMATE - HEAVY RAINFALL - AREAS WITH STEEP SLOPES - LANDSLIDES OCCUR - TRIGGERED BY EARTHQAUKES - DEFORESTATION = LANDSLIDES

LEYETE ISLAND - 2006 - RAIN FOR 10 DAYS - WHOLE VILLAGE BURIED - KILLING HUNDREDS

TYPHOONS - 10 EVERY YEAR - DEVELOP IN PACIFIC - MOVE WESTWARDS OVER ISLANDS

TYPHOON XANGSANE - 2006 - MANILA - DENSLEY POPULATED AREA - DESTROYED HOMES - CAUSED FLOODING LANDSLIDES  - LOSS OF POWER AND WATER  

TSNUAMIS - EARTHQUAKES UNDER OCEANS

1976 - EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE OF 7.9 - CAUSED TSUNAMI - HIT MORO GULF - 4-5 METER WAVE -  8000 DEAD - 10,000 INJURED - 90,000 HOMELESS - 14 BUILDINGS DAMAGED

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DISASTER HOTSPOT : THE PHILIPPINES (3)

DROUGHTS - DISTINCT DRY AND WET SEASON - MANILA - DRY BETWEEN NOVEMBER & APRIL - WET MAY - OCTOBER - DROUGHTS OCCUR WHEN WET HASN'T BROUGHT ENOUGH RAIN TO LAST DRY

LUZON ISLAND - 2005 - DECREASED RIVER WATER - AFFECTED POWER PRODUCTION IN HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS - WITHOUT POWER - ECONOMIC & SOCIAL ACTIVITY SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED.

FLOODING - CAUSED BY TYPHOONS & HEAVY RAINFALL - AFFECTS MANY AREAS

MAJOR FLOODS IN MANILA LOWLANDS - 1970'S - CROPS DEVESTATED.

VULNERABLE? - DENSLEY POPULATED - GREATER RISK - POPULATION PRESSURES - DEFORESTATION - INCREASES LANDSLIDE RISK - FAST GROWING ECONOMY- MANY BELOW POVERTY LINE-  PEOPLE LIVE IN UNSTABLE LOCATIONS - 240 PEOPLE PER KM2 - 2000 PER KM2 IN MEGACITY - 'MAPPING PHILIPPINE VULNERABILITY' - SEPERATE PROVINCE MANAGEMENT SCHEMES  - GDP US$5000 PC

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