genes alleles and inheritance

recessive trait rules

if a child has the disease and the parents do not then the parents are heterozygous and the disease is recessive 

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dominance trait rules

if a child does not have the disease and the parents do then the parents are heterozygous and the disease is dominant.

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sex linked trait rules

if a daughter has a recessive disease and the father doesn't then the disease can not be sex-linked.

if a son had a dominant disease and the mother is homozygous recessive then the disease cannot be sex-linked.

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for Hardy-Weinburg equations to apply, no factor s

  • there should be no immigration or emigration. the gene pool must be isolated and there is no flow of other alleles in or out
  • there should be no mutation
  • there should be no selection for or against a particular allele
  • there should be a large population 
  • mating within the population should be random
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what are the equations used in Hardy-Weinburg calc

p + q = 1.0

p2 + 2pq + q = 1

p= dominant allele 

q= recessive allele

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what do species exist as?

Species exist as one or more populations.

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what is a population

A population as a group of organisms of the same species occupying a particular space at a particular time that can potentially interbreed.

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what does Hardy-Weinburg predict?

predicts that allele frequencies will not change from generation to generation. The conditions under which the principle applies.

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what is the genotype

The genotype is the genetic constitution of an organism.

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what is the phenotype

The phenotype is the expression of this genetic constitution and its interaction with the environment.

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