Range of masculinities in the contemporary UK.
socially constructed, sets of expectations of how men should behave
differ according to class and ethnicity.
TRADITIONAL- hegemonic masculiniy is associated with:
Mall supremacy (power and authority)
macho and sexist behaviour
expectations of how women should behave
To talk of one homogenous hegemonic masculinity hides the range of experiences and behaviours of what it means to be a 'man'
Tradditional masculinity not always to do with Working class males
In 1950's and 1960's the men had BODY CAPITAL
they were main breadwinner
hard physical jobs
opt out if domestic duties
public work sepeartate from private at home
Willis 1977- 'LEARNING TO LABOUR'- Boys new they were going to follow in their fathers manual labour footsteps. So school was a laugh and didnt work hard, messed about in class.
Jackson 2006- motives for laddish behaviour: fear of achedemic failure and result in defensive laddish behaviour 'uncool' to work- feminine
Burdsey 2004- on Aisian footballers. They were willing to drop their identity and adopt the ladish one for a desire to 'fit in'
Archer- found at least one group in schools 'laddish groups' who took pride in messing about, playing up, talking back to teachers and being labelled stupid.
Being seen as stupid was positive in opposition to girls. The boys argued that particular teachers encouraged this type of behaviour. They said it was natural and innate. opposition to school culture
Other types of masculinity
COMPLICIT- new men who take on shared roles and responsibilities in the house and family
MARGINALISED- changing nature in labour market in 40 years means they cant assume there will be jobs for them after school, leaving many in a crisis. Mac and Ghaill- Crisis of masculinity
SUBORDINATE- concerned with gay men who are viewed as behaving differently to the expectations of the dominant hegemonic male
Creation and Reinforcement of these identities
Agents are interlinked- child goes to school plays with peers comes home watches tv and meal with family
Process varies according to social and cultural differences such as class and ethnicity. Racialised masculinites.
Stanley and Wise 2002- gender is socially constucted. gender is too simplistic.
Possible to resist process and exercise agency and choice. range of gender identities is changing. range of changes have increased
Siedler 2006- young males in 1950's new what it meant to be male. follow occupations of father, get married, have children. they had tradditional view of their identity and role.
Sharpe 1976- girls used to value having a man and romance in early 21st century but in 1994 she found they remained in education and want educational success and a career.
Blackman 1995- lower middle class and WC new wave girls. membership of group gave them strengh and confidence to resist sexual and racial oppsession. challenge male teachers and peers.- Assertive feminitiy. control
Passive/subordinate feminity- young women accept tradditional ideas about how they should behave, quiet, demure and submissive.
Osler 2003- girls were less likely to pose direct challenges because it could affect their reputation.
When boys got in trouble- positive by peers having an attitude and being physical were important parts of male identity
Normitive feminity- dont want to make a fuss Izzat- family honour in aisian families for girls
Lead double life, code switch, duel identities.
McRobbie- some aspects of feminity is to resist current expectations 'laddette'
Instrumental role- men should adopt. go out and earn money
Expressive role- women should adopt, caring, look after home and children
Agency- based on our decisions, make choices ourselfs. we excercise agency