Functionalist views of religion
Durkheim- Religion benefits society. Sacred + profane objects. Sacred- invoke feelings of awe +respect. Aboriginal study- clans. Own totems, which is sacred to them. Totem represented their God+society- collective consciousness. Also worshipping their society. Creates social solidarity+stability. :( small-scale, pre-industrial society. can't generalise it.
Malinowski- Individual. Life crises- births, marriages, deaths. Creates social solidarity+stability. Relieves anxiety where the outcome is uncertain/uncontrollable. Fishermen of the Trobiand Island. :( small-scale, pre-industrial society. Can't generalise.
Parsons- life has meaning. Bad people will prosper in the afterlife, good people who have suffered will be rewarded. :( secularisation
Bellah- civil religion. 'Americanism'. USA- different religions+ethnicities. Sacred objects- Flag, statues etc which represent the collective consciousness. Rituals- 4th July. God of America- social solidarity. :( how is it a religion?
Evaluation- :) How it brings society together :(Ignores conflict