Food Technology

Formula=  CxH20y

Carbohydrates can be split up into:

Sugars- Monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose

         - Disaccharides such as maltose, sucrose and lactose

Non Sugars- Simple polysaccharides such as starch, celulose, glycogen

                - Complex polysaccharides such as pectin and gums

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Carbohydrates 2



- Monosaccharide contain 2-7 atoms

- Most common monosaccharide in food contain 6 carbon atoms (called hexoses) and therefore their formula is C6H1206.

Glucose (Monosaccharide)

- Found in large amounts in grapes and smaller amounts in carrots and peas.

Glucose syrup which is used in commercial manufacture is not pure glucose, but a mixture of other carbohydrates, glucose and water.

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Carbohydrates 1

Formula=  C x H20y

Carboyhrates can be split up into:

Sugars- Monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose

          - Disaccharides such as maltose, sucrose, lactose.

Non sugars- Simple polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose, glycogen

                - Complex polysaccharides such as pectin and gums.

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Carboyhrates 3

Two forms of glucose:

Alpha- The hydroxyl group (OH) is at the bottom of the structure

Beta- The hydroxyl group (OH) is at the top.

Glucose is a reducing sugar, this means it has the ability to break down.

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Carbohydrates 4

Fructose (Monosaccharide)

Fructose is one and a half times sweter than glucose

- An equal mixture of fructose and sucrose is called an invert sugar which is found in honey.

- The structure of fructose changes depending on if it is found on its own or whether it is joined with other sugars.

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Carbohydrates 5

Galactose (Monosaccharide)

This doesn't occur in food but is formed when lactose is broken down during digestion

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Carbohydrates 6

Disaccharides (Sugars)

Formula= C12H22011

Formed when two monosaccharides join together during a condensation reaction (when water is eliminated)

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Carbohydrates 7

Lactose (Disaccharide)

- Sugar found only in milk

- Cows milk has 4-5%

- Human milk 6-8%

- This reducing sugar is formed by joining together glucose and galactose

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Carbohydrate 8

Maltose (Disaccharide)

- Formed when two glucose units join together

- When the two units join, water is eliminated and the remaining 02 atom forms a bridge between two glucoses.

- This bridge is called a glycosidic link

- Maltose is a reducing sugar

- During digestion, starch is broken down by the enzyme amylase (this enzyme is present in out saliva).

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Carbohydrate 9

Sucrose (Dissaccharide)

- Formed by 1 glucose unit joined with 1 fructose unit

- Ordinary suagr is almost pure sucrose

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Carbohydrates 10

Glucose + Glucose= Maltose

Glucose + Fructose= Sucrose

Glucsoe + Galactose= Lactose

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Carboyhydrates 11


Chemical breakdown of a molecule when it combines with water and produces two smallwe molecules

C12 + H22 + 0H + H20 = 2C6 H12 06               ( Hydrolysis of different disaccharides)

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Carbohydrates 12


Maltose + Water = Glucose + Glucose


Sucrose + Water = Glucose + Fructose


Lactose + Water = Glucose + Galactose

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