Food science

food science :)

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  • simple carbohdrates ( sugars) they are found in more nutritious foods like fruit and milk.They are a major source energy in the body.
  • complex carbohdrates( starches) have to be broken down by the body into simple sugars. Starch include grain products.
  •  Fats- provides insolation
  • protein- needed for repairing body tissues, growth and energy.
  • fibre- helps waste to come out of the digestive system more easily.
  • Nutrients- is essential elements or compounds. Nutrients are needed to carry out vital life functions: repiration, movement , growth and repair of the body tissues.
  • saturated fats- which come from animals, eatting too much saturated fat can raise chloestrol levels leading to heart diease.
  • insaturated fats- which come from plants, which are considered to be healthier than saturated fats.
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Vitamins and Minerals

  • Vitamins are chemicals compunds whereas minerals are chemical elements, they are both needed by your body to grow & function normally
  • vitamin A- healthy eyesight and skin
  • vitamin B- rasing energy from carbohdrates
  • vitamin C - used to maintain your immune system
  • vitamin D- healthy teeth and bones
  • vitamin k - blood clotting
  • iron- which helps your body make haemogglobin
  • phosphorus- which involves in releasing energy from your food can be found in meat and fish
  • calcium- important for teeth and bones
  • zinc- which is a part of many essential enzymes, and plays an inportant role in helping to heal wounds. it is found in meat,liver and seafood.
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Vitamin deficiencies

  • if you do not take in the (RDA) of vitamin though food or drink, you are to have vitamin defiency
  • vitamin A deiciency- this makes it diffult fotr your eyes to adjust to dim light, called night blindness.
  • vitamin B deiciency- needing to make red blood cells, without this it leads to amaemia.
  • vitamin C deiciency- bleeding gums, slow healing wounds.
  • vitamin D deiciency- not enough of this causes week teeth and bones


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How does your diet affect your health?

  • the more active a person is, the more energy they require from their diet so that their body can function properly. You also need more energy when you are growing.
  • energy requirments are meaused in kilojoules (kL) per day
  • eating to much saturated fat in your diet can narror blood vessels and cause heart disease.


  • food scientists can determine how much saturated fat a food product contains by looking at iodine number.This number is the mass of iodien(ingrams)iodine number in oliver oil is 75-95 whereas butter has an iodine num of 25-40.The lower the iodine num , the higher the saturated fat content in food/
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how do you diet affect you health? (2)

  • sugars(simple carbs) provide instant energy for the body as they absorb quickly into the bloody suppy
  • they have little nutritional value, taste nice but not filling and the more we eat, could lead us to obesity
  • insulin- a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels, by removing excess sugar form the blood.
  • salt(sodium) is an element that the body needs in order to function properly, it regulates bloood pressure, crital for the functioning of muscles and nerves. the mosty common form of sodium in your diet is soduim chloride(salt) Nacl
  • Too much salt can cause high blood pressure, years of high blood pressure can damage your arteries, encoraging chlesterol to build up, maing then narrower.
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what is in your food?

  • food additives have had government research has revealed that some permitting colourings which are used in many childens's foods and drinks has been linked with hyperactivness and exaggerating the symtoms (ADHD)
  • reasons why manafactures use additives: to keep for longer,(increases shelf life), to improve the appearance of foods(making them look nice) and to replace of enhance the falvour of food
  • Antioxidants- reducing the chance of fats&oils oxidisng
  • flavour enhancers-brings out flavour in foods without adding falvour of their own.
  • flavourings- added to wide range of foods, usually small amounts to add a particular smell(crisps)
  • colours- to improve appearance of foods
  • preservatives- used to keep food safe for longer(concern some presvatives could be damagering your health
  • sweetners- to reduce their sugar intake people choose to concume food that contains artifical sweeteners it contains lilttle energy, better for your teeth.
  • thickeners- this group contains emuulsifier, stabilisers& thinkeners, emuulsifier help mix together ingredients that would normally separate like oil an water. used to thinken food to improve thie texture.
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how can you tell what food you are eating ?

  • all food&drinks have a label this provides you with info about the intregients the food contains, including any additives, advice on how should store the product and its nutriitional value.
  • the label tells you much much of the four main nutrients groups( energy, protein, fat and carbohdrate) the food contains the amount of fibre and soduim contained in food.
  • most labels will also tell you how much of the total carbohydrate ssugars (natural and added) , the remander is mostly starch. You should gain most energy from starchy foods.
  • and how much of the fat is saturated: this is the type of fat that can raise blood chlolestrol levels.
  • a sell by date provides shops with info for stock control. A best before date refers to the quality of a food product, whereas a use by date refers to the safety of a product.
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using mircoorganism in food production

  • yeast is a type of fungus, that is needed to make bread,beer and wine. these three products r emade using a chemical reaction called fermentation.
  • fermentation is an example of anaerobic respiration- the yeast respires withou oxygen to ferment sugar, producing alcohol& carbon dioxide.
  • glucose----> ethanol+carbon dioxide ( C6H1206----> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2)
  • enzymes in yeast speed up the process of fermentation. the ideal conditions for fermentation are a good supply of gluocose, with no oxygen present at the temp 15oc and 25oc.
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food posioning

  • food posining is caused by the growth of microorganisms in food.
  • common signs of food poising is stomach pains, diarrhoea and being sick
  • three types of bacteria causing food poisoning is: salmonella, camplylobacter and E.coli
  • ways to ruduce food posioning and risk of contamination is:
  • washing your hands
  • washing the surface to kill bacteria
  • sterile packaging
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growing crops

  • two food production, intensie farming and organic farming
  • intensive farming produces large quantities of food cheaply and effiiently by maximising the grwoth of crops and farm animals.
  • organic- natural method od producing crops and rearing animals. organic farmer only use a small number of artifical chemicals allowed by the law. they let their aniamals roam freely as possible. many people belive its a ethical and that it healthier and tastes better.
  • common chemicals used by intensive farming is pesticdes, herbicides, fungicdes and fertillisers.
  • organic farmers add nutrients to the soil using manure using biological conrol and remove weds by hand or using a machine. 
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rearing animals

(look in book at the table)

  • intensive far imals are kept in a strict controlled environment which makes the animals increase in size quickly. Factors that are controlled are their diet(food), temperature and theh routine use of drugs
  • organically farmed animals are allowed to live more of a natural life, where they are free to roam in large enclosures and only given drugs when ill.
  • battry farmed
  • the hens have no space to run around - resriction on movement
  • tey have automantic food and water supply
  • light conditions can by alterede so in spring have long daylight hrs when the hens lay more eggs, therefore prodcution increses.
  • the birds are also prone to mutiple fratures, caused by bone weakness.Thia is due to the high rate of egg produtions, resulting in calcium definiency.
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  • iron is needed to maufacture haemogbin, which enables red blood cells to tranfer oxygen to the body tissues. Severe or prolonged iorn deficiency leads to anaemia, people who suffer from anaia cannot manufature haemoglobin effectively.
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Analysis of a fruit drink

  • testing for starch - add a few drops of iodine solution (orange-coloured) to the substance. if it goes dark blue-black then starch is present.
  • testing for fat- add few drops of ethanol into a test tube. if it turn cloudy, it contaisn fats
  • testing for protein- add copper sulphate the add hydroxide solution- it turns purple.
  • testing for sugar-add benedicks soluction turns orange-red it contain suagar
  • testing for acidity-use a univeral indicator then use the ph scale
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