Flaws

Names and descriptions of flaws in Unit 2 Critical Thinking

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Ad hominem

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Attacking the person you are arguing rather than attacking the arguement.

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Circular Arguement

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An arguement that starts and ends with the same point, and does not move forward.

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Conflation

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Treating two concepts that may be similar as if they are exactly the same.

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Confusing necessary and sufficient conditions

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What is necessary in a situation may not be sufficient (not enough).

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False cause

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Reasoning which assumes a causal connection between two events when there is likely to be some connection and many other explanations. 

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Post Hoc

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Reasoning which assumes a causal connection without good reason. Just because one thing happened before another thing, it is not necessarily the case that the first thing is the cause the second thing.

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Restricting the options

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Pretending that there are only two alternatives when there are, in fact, other possibilities.

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Slippery Slope

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An arguement that goes too far too quickly. One thing leads to another, resulting in an extreme conclusion.

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Strawman

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Deliberatley distorting the arguement of the opposition, in order to make it easier to fault.

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Sweeping generalisation

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Generalising from a limited sample or from a single example.

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'Tu Quoque'

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Arguing that something is okay because others have done it - 'You too.'

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