How do policies create a market?
- Marketization: The New Right argue that a free market in which companies compete for businesses can improve the quality of services over a period of time. They wanted to create a market for education, just as there is a market for small private businesses. This would be effective because choice and competition can drive UP STANDARDS and create a more SKILLED WORKFORCE.
- The 'Funding Formula and Open Enrolment' Education was were the school admissions were no longer controlled by the Local Education Authorities and schools could enrol as many students as they could fit. The BEST schools that attracted the MOST students received the LARGEST funds. This created COMPETITION as schools aimed to improve thier standards in order to attract the most student. This shows how marketization has benefitial effects as it improves education
AO2: However, others criticise the introduction to marketization. Barlett and LeGrand argue that marketization of education has resulted in SUCCESSFUL SCHOOLS in the WEALTHIEST areas to use CREAM-SKIMMING where they only select the most able students from the most affluent backgrounds. They also use 'SILT SHIFTING' where theyoffloads WORKING CLASS and DISABLED children because they are more expensive to teach and usually do not get the best grades. This shows how marketization has led to the creation of social class inequalities.
- Davies also argued that marketization has also led parents to have more CHOICE and FREEDOM about which schools they choose for their children- known as parentocracy. The power has been AWAY from the producers (schools and teachers) and to the consumers (parents). This means that parents have been 'shopping' around in order to make sure they choose the best possible school for their children.
AO2: However, Ball et al argues that parentocracy is a MYTH. He argues that NOT all parents were able to take advantage of the intoduction of markets. he describes that middle class parents were the SKILLED CHOOSERS so they were able to choose the best possible school for their children since they had the social contacts, money and cultural capital. On the other hand, working-class parents were DISCONNECTED choosers so they ended up choosing lower league schools were students underacheived
- League Tables and Ofstead reports were produced which were effective because parents and children could make RATIONAL DECISIONS about which school to send their children based on the position of the league table of the school or how good/ positive the Ofstead report is.
AO2: However, Ball and Whitty argue that the introduction to league tables has only benefitted the middle class. Ball and Whitty argue that the working class students are usually admitted to lower league, less successful and popular schools whereas the middle class are usually admitted to the successful, high league schools- social class inequalities created.
- Introduction to new types of schools: new schools were created that greatly empthathised on technology, science and maths. This proviided students with a greater choice and created more compeition.
AO2: Tomlinson argues that this benefitted the middle class because they had the cultural capital and so they could sent their schools to these schools.