Fertilisation and pregnancy

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  • Fertilisation and pregnancy
    • Fertilisation is the fusion of the nuclei of the male and female gametes.
      • each gamete is a haploid cell
      • fertilisation is important in restoring the diploid number and combining different sets of chromosomes
      • a fertilised ovum is known as a zygote and fertilisation takes place in the oviducts
    • Process of fertilisation
      • 3. one sperm passes through the outer membrane. a barrier forms to prevent entry of more than one sperm
      • 2. remaining follicle cells are scattered by sperm
      • 5. sperm nucleus and ovum nucleus fuse at fertilisation. a zygote has been formed
      • 1. sperm swim towards ovum
      • 4. head of sperm crosses ovum cell membrane
    • Implantation
      • the diploid zygote divides many times by mitosis to form a ball of cells as it travels down the oviduct to the uterus where it becomes embedded in the ticketed lining of the uterus, in a process known as implantation
        • once the embryo is attached to the lining of the uterus, some of its outer cells combine with some of the mother's cells and a placenta begins to form
          • the embryo then differentiates to produce a variety of tissues and organs
    • Process of implantation
      • 2. cilia and peristaltic waves sweep the ovum along the oviduct
      • 4. the zygote divides to form a ball of cells
      • 1. ovum is released from the ovary at ovulation
      • 3. fertilisation usually occurs in the first third to first half of the oviduct
      • sperm swim through the uterus towards the ovum in the oviduct
      • Sperm are released close to the cervix during sexual intercourse
      • 5. the ball of cells becomes an embryo. it implants in the uterus lining and a placenta develops

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