Family and Households

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  • Created on: 11-05-15 18:25

Family Roles and Structures- Sociologists veiws

Young and Willmott
Found that within modern marriages they were more likely to have joint conjugal roles and to share lesuire time and decision making.

Beck
Found that fathers are taking an active role in childcare

Gray
Fathers want to spend more time with their children but perhaps can't because they have to work long hours in the office

Sullivan
Men are doing more domestic tasks nowadays, leading to an equal divion of labour

Oakley
Only 15% of men have an active role in housework
Just 25% of men have an active role in childcare
Young and Willmott clearluy exaggerated their claims

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Domestic Abuse- Sociologists veiws

Donbash's Study
Trigger phrases and words which appears to challenge a man's authority would set off an act of violence. They live sin Scotland within a community which believed that men had the right to discipline their wives.

Elliot
Not all men benefit from domestic violence and most are opposed to it.
Feminists dont take into account the violence of women against children and men too.

Mirrlees- Black's Study
Studied 16,000 women
Found that there are 6.6 million assults reported eahc year
99% of victims are women
1 in 4 are assulted within their lives, 1 in 8 repeatedly so
1 in 7 men are assulted within their lives, 1 in 20 repeatedly so

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Family Diversity- Sociologist veiws

Goode
The worldwide trend is moving towards the western nuclear family

Chester
Cohabitation is part of the process of getting married
You cannot snapshot people's lives because family types change so much

Coast
75% of cohabiting couples expect to marry

Barrett and McIntosh
The idea of a nuclear family is universal

Rapoports
Believe we live in a pluralistic society where cultures and lifestyles are more diverse
There are 5 types of diversity within families Organisational, Generational, Life Stage, Social Class and Cultural

Beck (a rapoport)
Supports this by stating that it's a risk society where each relationship is weighed up with pros and cons and so people have more choice to develop their own type of relationship.

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Childhood- Sociologist vewis

Pilcher
Seperateness, meaning that adults and children have a seperate status from one another

Aries
Children's position within society has improved because they're protected from harm and exploitation.
Western culture is child centred whereas in medieval times children were seen as mini adults who were expected to act maturely and get a job from a young age

Hockey and James
Children resist the status of a child e.g. acting up and acting down

Punch
In other cultures children take up work from the age of 5

Palmer
Childhood is toxic and new technology has damaged children's intellectual, physical and emotional development

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Social Policies- Sociologists veiws

Murray
Social polcies consist of perverse incentives which reward irresponsible behaviour. It creates a dependancy culture and encourages teenagers to become pregnant to claim benefits

Marxists
Believe that policies have only been won after great class struggle, however some are still inadequate. Pensions are kept low because capitalists see the retired as unprofitable

Fletcher
The NHS allows members of a family to better take care of one another and fulfill the family functions

Land
Childcare is paid to the mother, assuming that they will be the main carer

Leonard
Maternity leave is paid to the mother for far longer than the father. This assumes women are the primary care giver and prevents them from returning to work

Donzelot
State power allows the government to place surveillance on troubled families which he calls the 'policing of families'

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The Family

Parsons
Nuclear families are a functional fit because they are geographically mobile and perform the stabalisation of adult personalities along with socialisation

Murdock
There are 4 functions of the family which include the stabalisation of the sex drive, socialisation of the young, meeting economic needs and the reproduction of the next generation

Marxists
Believe that socialisation within the family teaches the young to accept their place, gender roles and exploitation meaning it's primarily capitalist ideology

Engles
Manogamous marriages began when the bourgeorsie wanted their children to inherit the means of production and so therefore women became an instrument of reproduction

Benston
Nuclear families reinforce capitalism
Women in WW1 and WW2 were pushed between domestic work and factory work for the economy depending on which profits the capitalist system most

Zaretsky
The family is a haven from exploitation, the warm bath theory explains how women must make their husband feel at home and relaxed after a hard days work

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Family Roles and Structures- Sociologists veiws

British Social Attitudes Survey 2007
Sharing of child rearing responsibilities was more apparent than the sharing of domestic work

Ferri and Smith
Women are in charge of childcare in every type of household

Aber and Ginn
Working class women have a dual burden because they cannot afford childcare like middle class women can

Dunne
There are gender scripts within relationships which set our regimes and sterotypes

Schor and Silver
The commercialisation of housework has made domestic work easier and faster to complete. However this means that some men expect more to be done since it is less work for the woman.

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Family Diversity- Sociologist veiws

Man Yee- Kan
Each £10,000 increase in a woman's income takes on average 2 hours off of her housework a week

Dunscombe and Marsden
Domestic work, paid work and childcare = triple shift

Pahl and Vogler
Pooling incomes is on the increease, yet major financial decisions were primarily made by the man

Morgan
Women mainly care for the sick children even if they are both in full time paid work

Boulton
Just 20% of men have an active or major role in childcare

Warde and Hetherington
Men only do female jobs when the woman is not present to do them

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Family Diversity- Sociologist veiws

Parsons
There are male breadwinners and female home makers because there are biological differences

Bott
There are segregated and joint conjugal roles within a relationship

Barrett and McIntosh
The cereal packet family is harmful to society and is also unrealistic

Engles
Primitive Communism led to the bourgeorsie wanting to keep the means of production within the family. This led to an increase in manogomous marriages so that children could inherit, this meant women because an instrument of reproduction.

Zaretsky
The family is a form of capitalist exploitation and cannot always meet the needs of its members specifically

Onedia Community
Sex was allowed between agreeable members

Kibbutz System
Children are raised in age groups and spend evenings as weekends with their families (sort of like boarding school)

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Domestic Abuse- Sociologists veiws

Wilkinson
Stress is caused by social inequality such as financial problems and can led to domestic abuse

Cheal
The police see the family as a 'private sphere' and don't pay attention tot he darker side of the family because they assume parteners can leave at any time. This isn't always true since some are financially dependant on their significant other.

Yearnshire's Study
Found that on average a woman suffers 35 assults before reporting it to the police

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Family Diversity- Sociologist veiws

Murray
Thinks that lone parents cause social problems because young boys lack a male role model and turn to crime since their mother's cannot socialise or discipline them properly.

Modood Studies
White = Most likely to be divorced
Afro- Caribbean = Most likely to be a lone parent
Indian = Most likely to be married
South Asian = Most likely to be in an extended family

Stein
Creative singlehood, which is where people choose to stay single

1 in 10 adults are in a seriosu relationship, living apart together

Giddens
A pure relationship is created around the needs of those in it rather than the needs of society. However society becomes less stable if there is more choice and diversity

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Family Diversity- Sociologist veiws

Morgan
Diversity has increased due to a fragmented society

Cheal
There is now more choice and control over the families we create

Stacey
The divorce extended family means that some families are connected through divorce rather than marriage

Weeks
There has been a shift towards family diversity since the 50s since opinions and stigma has relexed

Gittins
It is only possible to say that relationships are universal

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Childhood

Gittins
Age paitriarchy allows adults to dominate and exploit adults

Postman
Childhood is disappearing at a dazzling speed due to the collapse of the information hierarchy. Children can gain access to sex, violence and money knowledge meaning that the mustery of adulthood was lost thanks to print culture

Opie
The globalisation of western childhood means that childhood is developing accross the globe rather than going away

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