Management Approaches Taylor, Mayo, Druker, Cooper
Explain the approach (PODSCoRB) that may be appropriate to the situation.
as management has moved to the 21st century managers are coaches, changes that education has bought Goals change PESTEL and Demographics (choice)
Objectives lead, direct guide an organisation - conflict management is usually necessary. Good managers acheive the objectives of an organisation through other people.
MbO allow fair and objective standards mutually agreed with the employee- links organisational objectives, employee empowerment, improves communication
Profitability, Market Share, Growth, Reputation, Sustainability, Triple Bottom Line includes Profitabilty, Social and Public Responsibility
Drucker Quote MbO works if the organisation is clear of its objective. 90% of the time this is not the case.
Management Processes (Control Systems)
Control System; = to acheive goals efficiently (work programing); improvement in performance affected by Management approach Factors of management process all controlled
Performance control Action Planning Essential elements 1)planning, 2)establishing standards of performance, 3)monitoring, 4)comparing, 5)corrective action
When control is used for improved performance consideration to factors that influence Human behaviour
Planning Organising Staffing Leading Controlling (in the sense of keeping to plan) Feed foward, concurrent, and feed back
Quality is subjective from meaning of excellance to fit for purpose.
Quality control is an effective, if inefficient means of assessment. far better the maxim of prevention is better than cure achieved by Quality assurance, Quality circles, Total Quality Mnagement
Steps in Control
Diagramatic Control process 3 important functional areas of Finacial, Inventory and Quality
1)Establish performance standards (physical, monetary and time),2) Determine performance measures(frequency, form and communication), 3)measure(written reports, inspections, tests,samples), 4)compare (variance analysis to establish why standard hasn't been achieved, 5)take corrective action to alter the control process
Aids to control
Manage by exception manager to informed if standard falls outside the band of tolerance.
Management Information System MIS collecting storing and distributing data
Business Case Sustainability
Leading definition is from the Bruntland report 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future gernerations of meeting theirs'
Triple bottom line drivers social, economic and public drivers that affect a firms primary objectives. opportunites of entry into new market ie insulation, restrict resources ie lighting manpower ie attracting high quality employees. consumers and investors are beginning to evaluate according to the TBL
Construction has an adverse affect on the environment, customers increasingly requesting sustainable credentials public procurement it is a prerequisite.
Environmental management scheme (EMS) required for ISO14001
conflicts with other primary objectives, may not fit into an organisations pricing strategy require training including SMT consideer the use of BREEAM rating, sustainable supply chain management policy
Management Accounting Distinct from Finacial accou
Financial accounting supplies the information required by outside sources eg govt and shareholders it is a Stratutory requirement
comprises of profit and loss account and balance sheet used by stakeholders to assess the health of the firm, its profitability, liquidity. how it is financed
Management accounting is financial information used internally by managers can assist their objectives. type of information forecasted, historical, planned budgeted, non monetary
Barriers to the introduction of objectives
are the reasons to introduce an objectives compelling enenough there is usually the introduction of new capital and systems which can lead to retraining and restructuring of departments
Cost:does the objective fit into the cost structure of the organisation
Knowledge: is enough known about the system
Resitance to Change: managers and employees alike
Relationship with the organisation's other primary objectives: will it compromise the organisations ability to complete its other objectives
Intangible and tangible products
tangible product uses raw materials and intangible replaces the raw materials with knowledge. How are the treated differently by their management
Marketing Def: matching the companies product to the people who need and want them to ensure profitability.
strategic objective which will include to consolidate and increase market share, market and sell to a particular income group, marke t and sell to a specific geographical area, develop a new product marketing is continuous (environmental change and customer demand).
Achevied by the marketing mix which includes the 4 p's
- Price, price strategy not to be competitive on price alone
- place, right place right time (internet)
- product, protected by consumer rights, the product the consumer wants
- promotion how the target consumers are educated through what media advertising, word of mouth, networking, services survive on reputation
Management processes activities that are affected
service providers are difficult to quantify and qualitfy production, are they over acheiving or under acheiving
Production (Job, Batch, flow) distinction of tangiable good which blurs with services type will affect the marketing used
Manpower planning straightforward requirement of increasing requirements based on outflow
training distiction of soft (work ethic, attitude, communication skills) with service users they become more important; hard training(the tools required to do the job)
measure that a job is completed to an aceeptable standard
- how tidy were they
- job completed in a timely manner
- show consideration to the client
- were they efficient with their tools