Evolution and GM

Genetic Engineering and Evolution (Theory and evidence)

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Gentic engineering

  • Gentic engineering is the process in which genes from one organism are removed and inserted into another.
  • Scientists can now genetically modify plants and animals using the process of gentic engineering.


  • Plants are now resistant to disease
  • Wheat etc can now take in nirogen from air, so less need for fertilisers
  • Fruits stay fresher for longer
  • Cows milk can produce human anti-bodies in it's milk


  • Concern about effects on humans
  • Crops may pollonate wih weeds, passing on resistance to herbicides and pesticides
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Evolution - Theory and Evidence

  • Evolution is all about change and improvement from simple life forms
  • The theory of evolution states that all living things that exist today, or once existed, evolved from simple life forms three billion years ago.
  • Natural selection or survival of the fittest causes natural selection.
  • If the strongest and the fittest survived, then they would pass on their useful traits to their offspring.
  • An example of natural selection is that of the peppered moth. The mutation of the black moth put the pale one at an advantage, but when the trees blackened with soot from factories,it put the black moth at an advantage. 

Fossils provide evidence for the theory of evolution. Fossils can be formed by;

  • The hard parts of an animal form in a rock
  • Minerals which preserve their shape gradually replace the softer parts of an animal that decay very slowly.
  • In conditions when decaying cannot happen like freezing temperatures, zero oxygen and no moisture.
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