people who share the same heritage, culture and identity, often including the same language and religion and who see themselves as a distinct group.
An attidude or policy that gives priorty to the culture and viewpoint of a particalar ethnic group
When the systems and procedures of an insition (school) disadvantage ethnic minority students.
INDICATING THE PERCENTAGE OF PUPILSS GAINING 5 A*-C
WHITE MALE - 51% WHITE FEMALE - 61%
CHINESE MALE- 74% CHINESE FEMALE - 84%
BLACK MALE- 40% BLACK FEMALE- 54%
shows females do better overall in education and so do chinese, whereas black males do worse.
intellectual and lingustic skills, societal racism, material deprivation, family structure, attidudes and values
no resorces , noisy house, where you live, bad diet-howard, no internet, money promblems, poverty, free dinners- bullied, un correct uniform, live in damp messy conditions.
Ethnocentric curriclum, labelling, pupil subcultures, institional racism , selection and segregation, teacher racism.
Pakistans and bangladish as 3x more likely than whites to be in the poorest fifth of the population
Male unemployment is 3x more higher for ethnic minorities than for whites.
15% of ethnic minority households live in overcrowding housing compared to 2% of white families.
No data of chinese pupils getting free school meals.
about 80% of black families are run by lone parents.
SWANN REPORT- estimated that social class accounts for approx 50% of the difference in achievement.(social class is the promblem)chinese=m/c black = w/c
REX- racism can lead to social exclusion and this worsens material deprivation
BOWKER- lack of basic english as a majour barrier to progress in education
MOYNIHAN- black families are mainly headed by female lone parents= lack of male role model, badly behavied at school, dont see a man working
LAWRENCE-black pupils fail because of racism not low self esteem.
DAVID GILLBORN-found teachers were quick to discipline black students
CECILE WRIGHT- asian students were subject to negative labelling
Fuller and mirza
Fullers girls were pro- education but anti-school. ( THE INNOVATORS)
high acheivers, friends with other black girls from lower streams, they conformed only as far as school work itself worked hard but did not show it.
Mirza's girls failed to achieve their ambitions
because teachers discourged them from aspiring to proffesional careers resulted in under acheivement.
sewells studied black boys and teacher responses
found teacher responses were stero-typical BLACK MACHISMO- black students going to be hard work. THE REBELS - the most visible but the minority rejected both the goals and rules often excluded ( anti-school subculture )
theroist argue that many children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiances in contrast chinese do get intellectual stimulation and enriching experiance due to being m/c.
INTELLECTUAL & LINGUSTIC SKILLS- english may not be there first language (bowker) however the swann report says class is the promblem.
ATTIDUDES AND VALUES- black students are brought up to be fatalism.
FAMILY STRUCTURE AND PARENTAL SUPPORT. - black families are mainly headed by female lone parents ( moynihan)
IGNORES the postive side effects of ethnicity on achievment : black caribbean families provide girls with positive role models of strong independant women. It is argued this is why black girls tend to do better than black boys.
internal school factors
LABELLING AND TEACHER RACISM
PUPIL RESPONSES AND SUBCULTURES
SELECTING AND SGREGATING
selecting and segregating
has given schools greater scope to select pupils PICK CHINESE, REJECT BLACK!
The commission for racial eqaulity :
has identified biases within school admission procedures (unfair)
- reports from primary schools that sterotype minority pupils
- racist bias in interviweing for school places
- ethnic minority parents are often unaware of how the admission system works because they lack cultural capital.