- Created by: maisyandrews05
- Created on: 20-05-19 18:17
- intellectual and lingustic skills
- attitudes and values
- family structure and parental support
- fathers, gangs and culture (Sewell)
- asian families
- white WC families
intellectual and linguistic skills
Low income black families:
- lack intellectual stimulation leaving children poorly equipped for school
- unable to solve problems
The language spoken by low income black families is seen as ungrammatical and inadequate for educational success - children who don't speak english at home are at a disadvantage.
attitudes and values
Lack of motivation is a major cause of failure for many black pupils.
Some black children are socialised into a subculture that instils a fatalistic 'live for today' attitude that does not value education - leaving them unequipped for educational success.
family structure and parental support
Murray - high rates of lone parents and lack of male role models leads to underachievement.
Moynihan - many black families are headed by lone parents - children are deprived of adequate care - mother struggles finacially in absence of no male bread winner. This becomes a cyle - inadequately socialised children - fail school - become inadequate parents themselves.
Indian and Chinese pupils - benefit from an Asian work ethic which places high value on education.
Lupton - adult authority in Asian families is similar to the authority in school - respectful behaviour from children towards adults is expected, and this has a positive knock on effect at school - they treat teachers with the same respect.
white working class families
- often have lower aspirations and underachieve
Lupton - studied 4 schools with different ethnic mixes - teachers reported poorer levels of discipline in white WC schools - blamed on lower levels of parental support and their negative attitudes.
criticisms of cultural deprivation
Driver - it ignores the positive effects of ethnicity on achievement - eg. black Carribean families provide girls with positive role models of strong independent women
Lawerence - black pupils underachieve due to racism, not low self-esteem
Keddie - ethnic minority children are culturally different, not deprived - they underachieve due to the ethnocentric curriculum
- almost half of all ethnic minority children live in low income households
- almost 2x as likely to be unemployed compared to whites
Many live in economically deprived areas - there is high uneployment and low wages.
Cultural traditions prevent women from working outside of the home - they should remain as housewives.
There is racial descrimination in the job market.
racism in wider society
Wood et al - there is deliberate discrimination in the workplace
- 3 similar applications sent using different ethnic names
- only 1 in 16 ethnic minority applicants were offered an interview
- 1 in 9 white applicants were
This shows why they are more likely to be unemployed and have low pay. This effects children's educational prospects.
Rex - racial discrimination leads to social exclusion - this worsens poverty for ethnic minorities