English Language AS/A2 - AO1 Terminology

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Abstract Nouns

Emotions, qualities, occasions etc.

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A person's accent is the way he or she speaks, with differences in the sounds that can show the place a person comes from, or their social class.

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Adjacency Pair

Parallel pairs in conversational chat. E.g “It’s cold outside today isn’t it / Yes it is.”

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Asynchronous Chat

When there is a gap between the message being written and the message being read.

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Auxiliary Verb

Verb that supports main verbs e.g. ‘to be’ ‘to have’ ‘to do.’

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When the receiver gives feedback to the speaker. E.g. “Oh I see.”

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Common Noun

words used to name general items rather than specific ones. E.g common noun – jeans. Proper noun – Levis.

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Concrete Noun

A concrete noun is a noun which can be identified through one of the five senses (taste, touch, sight, hearing, smell).

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A word that is marked with an apostrophe in order for it to be shortened. E.g. cannot becomes can’t.

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A direct meaning or a set of meanings of a word or expression. E.g. ‘Poodle’ is a denotation of a breed of dog.

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A descriptivist accepts the change in language and believes that it is necessary for the language process.

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the version of language spoken by particular people in a particular area, such as Scots.

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two vowel characters representing the sound of a single vowel. (Cow, Now, Loud. Boy, Toy Foil).

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Written or spoken communication.

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the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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What is presented to us when in conversation – Either positive or negative face.

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Face Threatening Act (FTA)

Language/Actions that reject the face in which someone presents.

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A filler word is an apparently meaningless word, phrase, or sound that marks a pause or hesitation in speech.

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The act of posting aggressive posts, threats or responses.

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Greeting Sequence

The moment in conversation where the receiver is greeted.

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When a sentence is softened by a particular word.

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Homophonic Representation

When a word is replaced by a number in conversation. E.g. ‘For’ becomes ‘4’

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A belief, point of view or set of values.

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The particular way a person talks.

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These are words like very or really that occur before an adjective or an adverb and boost the strength of its meaning.

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Tone/quality of voice

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Instrumental Power

explicit power of the sort imposed by the state, by its laws and conventions or by the organizations for which we work. It operates in business, education and various kinds of management.

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Talk about talk e.g “It’s been great talking to you.”

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Paralinguistic Features

Body language during conversation.

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Phatic Talk

Small Talk (How are you? / Fine.)

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the branch of linguistics dealing with language in use and the contexts in which it is used.

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Pre-closing Sequence

The part of conversation which is about to come to an end.

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Believes that language is better kept ‘pure’ (Based on a dictionary/books) whereas new language is bad.

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Prosodic Features

This is the collective term used to describe variations in pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm.

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Social Group Power

When a group of the same social background has power.

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Synchronous Chat

When there is instant communication within the conversation (Mostly seen in instant messaging such as MSN or Facetime).

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the arrangement of words to show relationships of meaning within a sentence.

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Synthetic Personalisation

the process of addressing mass audiences as though they were individuals through inclusive language usage (One of Norman Fairclough's processes of advertising)

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Tag Question

Making a statement and putting an auxiliary verb and a pronoun at the end. “The weather is nice today, isn’t it?”

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A topic area initiated by a post to which others can respond to.

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Varient Spelling

Where a word is spelt differently for different meanings yet they have the same sound. (There, Their, They’re)

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