The use of natural and artificial fertilisers
Natural fertilisers (i.e organic - manure)
- cheaper - economic to use as it's using waste materials.
- may improve soil structure
- ion content unknown and cannot be controlled
- animal manures may contain disease which could be harmful to plants
Artificial fertilisers (i.e inorganic - pure chemicals)
- expensive - value of increased yield must exceed the cost of buying and applying fertiliser
- can require the use of heavy machinery
- if used excessively may lead to leaching - eutrophication.
- may change balance of nutrients in soil causing harm to other organisms.
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Rearing livestock intensively
Controlling conditions organisms live in.
- warm sheltered environment - less energy is lost by heat
- tightly packed and in cramped conditions to prevent movement - less energy lost through respiration/movement.
- fed on controlled diet high in certain nutrients to increase absorption
- slaughtered when still growing so more energy is converted to biomass
- genetically selected for high productivity
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