elizabethan England

attitudes towards education

no national system of eduaction

purpose of eduaction was to help poor so focused on practical skills and sometimes basic literacy

only 15 to 20 percent population could reador write

schools had fees only few attended

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elizabethan England

changong influences on eduaction

early 1500s humanists argued eduaction valuable

meant improved

protestants argued peole read scriptures which boosted literacy

growth printing press meant books less expensive meaning more reading opportunities

growth of trade required ordiary people read and writeso could record transactions properly 

encoiraged more literate

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elizabethan England

changong influences on eduaction

early 1500s humanists argued eduaction valuable

meant improved

protestants argued peole read scriptures which boosted literacy

growth printing press meant books less expensive meaning more reading opportunities

growth of trade required ordiary people read and writeso could record transactions properly 

encoiraged more literate

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elizabethan England

changong influences on eduaction

early 1500s humanists argued eduaction valuable

meant improved

protestants argued peole read scriptures which boosted literacy

growth printing press meant books less expensive meaning more reading opportunities

growth of trade required ordiary people read and writeso could record transactions properly 

encoiraged more literate

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elizabethan education

PARISH SCHOOLS UP TO AGE 10

set up by local church run by clergy taught basic literary skills to yeomen and craftmen kids

PRIVATE TUTORS

delivered provate eduaction to nobility and finished in household another family

GRAMMER SCHOOLS 10-14

charged fees

scholarships available poor

attended kids craftmen merchants

boys taught bible latin greek etc reading maths 

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elizabethan education

PETTY SCHOOLS UP TO 10

run privately from homes

attended kids gentry farmers yeomens

UNIVERSITIES14-

oxford and cambridge\

studied music philopphy logic etc

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educating girls

many no formal eduaction wouldnt need

better off families sent dame school run by wealthy women in homes

private tutors

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educating girls

many no formal eduaction wouldnt need

better off families sent dame school run by wealthy women in homes

private tutors

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educating girls

many no formal eduaction wouldnt need

better off families sent dame school run by wealthy women in homes

private tutors

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educating girls

many no formal eduaction wouldnt need

better off families sent dame school run by wealthy women in homes

private tutors

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sports pastimes and pleasures

NOBILITY

HUNTING-horseback with hounds or birds -hawking- involved men and women

FISHING-men and women

REAL TENNIS-men only increasingly popular

FENCING- men onky

FARMERS CRAFTSMEN AND LOWER CLASS

FOOTBALL-men only rules varied no limit numbers could be violent men often killed

WRESTLING-men all classes gambling outcome

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sports pastimes and pleasures

NOBILITY

HUNTING-horseback with hounds or birds -hawking- involved men and women

FISHING-men and women

REAL TENNIS-men only increasingly popular

FENCING- men onky

FARMERS CRAFTSMEN AND LOWER CLASS

FOOTBALL-men only rules varied no limit numbers could be violent men often killed

WRESTLING-men all classes gambling outcome

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Spectator sports

BAITING-watch animals fight death dogs encourage attack chained bears and bulls bets made

****-FIGHTING-attacked each other using metal spirs and beaks

small towns special areas built

betting

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LITERATURE AND THEATRE

-alot new literature written

-but medieval also popular like chaucers canterburu tales

-mystery plays pop with cath replaced with non religious ones SECULAR PLAYS 

-shown in purpose built theatres like globe red lion

-comedies funded weathy noblemen

-spondsered by nobility like queen

-performers known as queens men and leicsters men

-all social classes attented poor sat in pots near ground and upper in stcoks

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music and dancing

many played instruments

-lutes and spinets

-musical performances popular

-paid play at oublic events

-played fairs markets or churches

-wealthy had them play in meals

-music accompy theatre

-dancing popular brought together men and women 

upper and lower didnt dance together

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pleasure

exapnsion different wasy of thinking poetry science affecting schools

-sports etc gave break from worries

eg war spain

or buisness owners economic issues-trade could be badly affected by poor relations with spain and conflict netherlands

-people faced poverty strvation

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who were the poor

-unemplyment or illness lead to stravation

-either those who were ill or too young to work and needed finacila help or those who were able bodies yet begged or were homeless

POOR SPENT 80 PERCENT INCOME ON BREAD

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Why did poverty increase

POPULATION GROWTH

35 PERCENT

towns and citie espaicllay 

needed food but only countryside grew it

had to be brought into urban areas for sae]more pople to feed meant prices rose

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RISES PRICES

PRICES FOOD ROSE WHEN HARVESTS BAD

food production slower than population

bread basis diet amd grain proces rose fastest

more wanted work so wages low

deamn for land grew meaning charging higher proces -landowners-

entry fees went up

people evicted make way sheep farming

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sheep farming

wool 81 percent englands exports

price increase as did demand

farming hseep very porfiatble

BUT LARGE SCALE BUISNESS SO ONLY LANDOWNERS COULD AFFORD IT

2000s flock of sheep often

SHEEP FRAMING TOOK LANDOMNCE USED FOR CROPS

DIDNT REQUIRE AS MUCH LABOUR SO UNEMPLOYMENT ROSE

FEEDING CROPS MEANT LESS TO EAT FOR POOPLE

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ENCLOSURE

replacng large open fields that were farmed by villagers with indiviaul felds belonging one person

tenany farmers evicted

resulted in unemployment and deppulation

farming techniques improvong 

meant fewer labourers needed 

sheep need less labour

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why did vagabondage increase

it was belived those who were able tot work but didnt were idle and government finally came to reliase why NOT ENOUGH JOBS

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changing attitudes towards poor

FINACILA HELP PROVIDED OR very poor KNOWN AS POOR RELIEF

paid by tax POOR RATE

JPS organised it

helping poor was christian duty

IMPOTENT tgose unable to work if ill young people were sympathetic

able bodies punished teated more harshly

VAGRANTS FACED PUNISHMENTS SUCH AS WHIPPING AND IMPRISONMENT

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final pushes for poor laws

trade was bad poor able bodies increased more than before

1563-64 and 1586-88

unemployment recognized as socila and econmic problem which lead to new developements

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final pushes for poor laws

trade was bad poor able bodies increased more than before

1563-64 and 1586-88

unemployment recognized as socila and econmic problem which lead to new developements

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final pushes for poor laws

trade was bad poor able bodies increased more than before

1563-64 and 1586-88

unemployment recognized as socila and econmic problem which lead to new developements

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poor laws

CONTINUITY -ALREADY THERE

POOR RATE-local tax by JPS spent improving poors lives and gien things to sell

charity-funded by wealthy people eg.lady ceils bequest for poor tradesmen

PROGRESSIVE TRADES

STAUTUE OF ARTICFICERS 1563

those refuing pay poor rates put prison

offialcs who faield organise poor relief pay penalty 20 pounds

POOR RELIEF ACT 1576

JPS required provide por with wool to make and sell things those refues sent to house of correction

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poor laws

REPRESSIE 

1572 vagabounds act

taregted vagrants

parliament felt pose threat to society

were whipped hole drilled each ear as mark shame

imprisoned

given death oenalty

INTROCUDEC NATIONAL POOR RATE FOR MOENY AND WORK FOR IMPOTENT

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IMPACT OF POOR LAWS

-change for good ut poverty still a aproblem

-pamplet writers stirred up fear of vagabounds

-recognision of unemployment general isuue not just laziness

helped keep independence and dignity enbaled them to stya in homes

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explorations and voyages

why did it happen more

EXPANDING TRADE

trade expanding quicjly new world and english merchants needed new trading opportunities after war with spain in netherlnds damagwed wool trade 

IMPROED SHIP DESGIN-

bigger sais and more maneuvaroble 

poseesed greater fire power to protect from priartes 

more stable and take on more supplies meaning longer voaygers

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private investment

LIKE ELIZABTH AND COURTIERS FUNDED VOAYGES

although risky could be rewarding 

increased incomes of crown and nobility

MAPS

imporved navigation and records of voyages meat more accurate maps

1569 mercator map deeloped where he sued parrallel and enely spcaed lines of longitude and latitide to place lands more accuratly on map

menaing more realostssic picture of world

DAVENTURE

published accounts of voyaes like drake

persuaded others ot venture in belief treaure and riches could be found

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private investment

NEW TECHNOLOGY

navigation more precise

development nautical dveices like qudrats emant voyages safer meaning more exploration and trade

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triangle trade

john hawkins tradr and explorer discvered iron goods and guns could be sold west africa to buy slaves whoch could be sold new world in echange rum tobaco etc then sold in europe

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why did drake circumnaviagte world

december 157-septmeber 1580

knighted by elizabeth

main purpose raid soan colonies in pacific

wanted revenge as span attacked dutch fleet st juan de ulua most men killed

great profit to be make into americas and plenting willing to inevst in expedition at coirt

rerurned back very rich

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why was his circumnavigation significant

ENGLAND SEEN AS A GREAT SEA-FARING NATION

despote voyage amost end disastor he and 56 managed survie became only second crew in history to do it

boosted eng morale and stablished eng ships good rep

important as constant fears spain incade

ENCOURAGED EXPLORATION 

far north as vancover

gathered great info on americas and made sure ciuld be share

NOVA ALBION

when goldne hide needed reapiring landed it in san fran

nate americans treated well and performed ceremony quivalent to coronation

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why was his circumnavigation significant

ENGLAND SEEN AS A GREAT SEA-FARING NATION

despote voyage amost end disastor he and 56 managed survie became only second crew in history to do it

boosted eng morale and stablished eng ships good rep

important as constant fears spain incade

ENCOURAGED EXPLORATION 

far north as vancover

gathered great info on americas and made sure ciuld be share

NOVA ALBION

when goldne hide needed reapiring landed it in san fran

nate americans treated well and performed ceremony quivalent to coronation

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WHY significant

NAMED IT NOVA ALBION and declare eliz to be its soverign

NOW named california

peaceful welcome enoirage settlers from europe

ENCOURAGING COLONIES IN AMERICA

when returned encourages investors to establish own colonies

anglospanish damaged realtions

Attacking span colonies angere phillip

when knighted sent message to him

phillip saw him and pirate and her scandalous

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WHY significant

NAMED IT NOVA ALBION and declare eliz to be its soverign

NOW named california

peaceful welcome enoirage settlers from europe

ENCOURAGING COLONIES IN AMERICA

when returned encourages investors to establish own colonies

anglospanish damaged realtions

Attacking span colonies angere phillip

when knighted sent message to him

phillip saw him and pirate and her scandalous

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SIR WALTER RALEIGH

1580s he promoted idea of establishing new world

enbaled eng have outlet for growing population

resoirces like gold and silver

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sir Walter Raleigh

nobleman and coirtier became explorer when eliz reign. 1584 eliza gave him a grant to explore and settle lands north america

he needed raise lots money AND ENCOIRAGE COLONISTS TO LEAVE HOMES AND SETTLE NEW LAND

DIDNT LEAD COLONISTS BUT RAISED FUNDS AND PERSUADED PEOLE LEAVE FOR VIRGINIA

WHY SIGNIFICANT

investigate and raised funds, promoted voyage,appointed gov of virnia who ruled in his place

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why was Virginia colonised

TRADE-explores could barter ironware,woolen cloth in return for animal skins gold etc

could produce crops like sugar and cane and bring back

LESS DPENDENT ON SPAIN AND FRANCE FOR GOOD-

WELCOING AND FREIDNLY NATIVES-algonquian indians went back to england and encoiraged

RALEIGH ABLE TO PERSUADE INVESTOR HAT TRIP COULD BE PROFITABLE-like nobility and they invested

BASE ATTACK FOR ATTACKING SPANISH COLONIES-demonstarte to indian tribes that english better than span rulers

EASIER TO FUND OTHER VENTURE-opened up new world to english settlement

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MANTEO AND WANCHESE

1584 EXPEDITION BROUGHT BAK TWO INDIANS 

thomas harriot a mathematician taught them english helped eng colonisted make contacts with their people

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raising funds

not enough koney at fisrt BUT STILL ECOMIC BENEFITS MAKING VYAGE WORTHWILE

=coloy could proode exotic materials that broguht back to engad

native amercians wanted simple cheap eng goods like wool

colony provide work for merchants

lots revenue eng gov

raleigh suggested he wuld fund but eliz refused but named coloy in her favour

gave hima hip and gunpowder one of her faves

royal backig gave project prestige and encoirages others invest

HE PROMISED WOULD TAKE SPANISH SHIPS TO MERCHANTS AND THIS ENCOIRAGED THEM

HE INVESTED ALOT OF HIS OWN MONEY

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ORGANISATION

SUPPLIES

enough to get across eng atlantic, fresh water, tools, weapons

ships that big enough and well armedif attacked

when to sail-sail in enough time for harvest which was essential

who 300 colonists variety skills, landowners, like balcksmiths, clergy,soldiers

OTHER CONSIDERAIONS

will need buty animals in caribean for eating

spain controsl caribean so could be attacked

building shelterwhen first arrive will need to barter with indians

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difficulties

finding people willing difficult

only 107 colonists not 300

raleigh not allow lead expedition himslef as consided too dangerous

HE ANNOINTED FOLLOWING MEN

RALPH LANE-expert on fort building and good soldier

THOMAS HARRIOT-worked with wanchese and undestood navigation

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why did attempts to colonise it fail

LACK OF FOOD-1st colonists let eng too late to reach crops and one of five ships let in seawater ruining food

LED TO FAILIURE BECAUSE 

unable provode for themselves and they eventually abandomed 1586

the second colony got lost 

POOR LEADERSHIP-leader of forst expeditin RICHARD GREENVILLE hot headed and seond leader JOHN WHITE abandome coloy 1587

LED TO FAILIURE BECAUSE 

people had little direction

LACK SKILLS

mechants and landowners lacked phycial capability

lack of stonemasons meant stone fort neer builtmeaning vulnerbale to attck

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why did it fail

NATIVE AMERICAN ATTACK

1586 indiands led attack on colonies after angry with diasese they brough

BEATEN OFF BUT LED TO 1ST EXPEDITION TO ABANDOM ROANOKE

some settlements become slaves

WAR WITH SPAIN

1585

threat from aramda meant ships could resupply back at home

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why was the colonisation significant

UNDERMINED SPAIN

provieded eng with base to attack span colonies

virginia ideally placed and in long run hoped to undermine spains infuence in new world

and would offer native americnas an alternatie to spanish and trade

ECONIMIC BENEFITS

trade vital eng economy

eliz wanted encouage new merchants as conflict with sain made trading difficult

many things culd be supplied from virginia woudlnt be dependent on other cuntries like spain or france for fruit

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