1558 Situation abroad
Spain - Catholic, PII needed to maintain alliance with Liz as French and Scottish attack on England might succeed, leaving Spain unable to use English Channel as communication route.
France - Liz traditional enemy, peace delayed as Liz wanted Calais back, 1559 Francis II became King of France, Mary Stuart became Queen.
Scotland - ruled by Mary of Guise, many Scottish nobles were P
Netherlands - PII controlled. Antwerp vital for Liz trade
Pope - could excommunicate Liz, could call on Catholic powers in Europe to lead religious crusade against England and its "ungodly" ruler
1558 Situation at home
H of C - P, few ardent C
H of L - largely C, bishops capable of blocking legislation
PC - largely P, dominated by Cecil
Marian Exiles - fled England in Mary's reign, then returned, expected to be given key posts in Church
Majority of population were conservative
1558 The Church
Clergy - particularly bishops = solidly catholic. Urged people to resist P.
Government - A woman of Head of C unacceptable
Organisation - largely unchanged, remained hierarchical
Ritual - presence or absence of images, furnishings and vestments always disputed
Doctrine - C wanted to retain their belief in transubstantiation, while radicals saw communion service as commemorative