Elizabeth I

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1558 Situation abroad

Spain - Catholic, PII needed to maintain alliance with Liz as French and Scottish attack on England might succeed, leaving Spain unable to use English Channel as communication route.

France - Liz traditional enemy, peace delayed as Liz wanted Calais back, 1559 Francis II became King of France, Mary Stuart became Queen.

Scotland - ruled by Mary of Guise, many Scottish nobles were P

Netherlands - PII controlled. Antwerp vital for Liz trade

Pope - could excommunicate Liz, could call on Catholic powers in Europe to lead religious crusade against England and its "ungodly" ruler

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1558 Situation at home

H of C - P, few ardent C

H of L - largely C, bishops capable of blocking legislation

PC - largely P, dominated by Cecil

Marian Exiles - fled England in Mary's reign, then returned, expected to be given key posts in Church

Majority of population were conservative

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1558 The Church

Clergy - particularly bishops = solidly catholic. Urged people to resist P.

Government - A woman of Head of C unacceptable

Organisation - largely unchanged, remained hierarchical

Ritual - presence or absence of images, furnishings and vestments always disputed

Doctrine - C wanted to retain their belief in transubstantiation, while radicals saw communion service as commemorative

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