Blood & Blood Vessels

  • Created by: Saarah17
  • Created on: 31-10-22 20:41

Blood & Blood Vessels

—> the human cardiovascular system is a double circulatory system

—> this means that for every complete circulation of the body, the blood passes through the heart twice

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Features :

  • Thick wall containing lots of smooth muscle and elastin fibres
  • to withstand high pressure of blood from the left ventricle of the heart.
  • Elastin allows recoil after pulsation of blood as pressure changes
  • (higher systolic pressure just after heart has contracted, lower diastolic pressure between contractions).
  • Small lumen.
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Features :

  • thin walls as blood flow has low pressure.
  • large lumen to reduce friction to blood flow.
  • semi-lunar valves present to prevent back flow of blood.
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Features :

  • link arteries and veins and run through tissues.
  • site of exchange of materials between the blood and tissues by diffusion.
  • walls are one endothelial cell thick giving a short diffusion pathway.
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—> blood is comprised of 3 different types of cells

—> the liquid they are in is called plasma

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  • platelets
  • fragments of larger cells
  • blood clotting and wound repair
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  • red blood cells
  • biconcave shape
  • no organelles
  • contain haemoglobin
  • transport of oxygen
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  • white blood cells
  • contain a nucleus
  • protect against pathogens
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  • straw-yellow liquid
  • carries cells
  • dissolved oxygen and nutrients
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Blood type

—> is determined by antigens on the cell surface membrane of red blood cells
—> and antibodies in the plasma.

—> normally the antigens and antibodies don’t match

—> could lead to a blood transfusion being incompatible
—> could cause complications if blood groups aren’t matched before.

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—> as well as the A and B antigens that can be on the surface of the red blood cells,
—> there’s also D antigens
—> whether they are present or not determines whether you are Rh+ or Rh-.

Rh- = you can have
Rh+ = you can have your own type, O+ & O-

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