Educational Policy

1944 Butler Act

  • Tripartite System(1945)- 11+ was taken by all those aged 11, 11 to determine which school they will attend next
  • Passed= grammar schools, some who just passed=technical schools, failed=secondary modern schools
  • selection was clear, most U/C children went to grammar school where there was an academic curriculum and went onto non manual jobs 
  • working class children went to secondary modern school, non academic curriculum and went onto manual jobs 
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1965 The Comprehensive System

  • placed by Labour government
  • 11+ was abolished
  • all children would be educated in the same school, regardless of social background, gender and ethnicity
  • large schools offering students good facilities and opportunities
  • it was up to the local council to go comprehensive-some do did not therefore there was still a divide with grammar schools
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1985 Swann Report

  • implemented by Labour government 
  • responded to the diversity of British society
  • aimed to reduce institutional racism to provide an Education for All
  • helped those with English as a second language
  • celebrates othe religions and cultures, teaching of citizenship
  • wider teaching of different languages
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1979-1997 Conservative Party

  • Marketisation= the process of introducing market forces of consumer choice and competition between suppliers into areas run by the state, such as education e.g raising standards through competition, increasing parental choice, greater control over what was taught 
  • Marketisation has resulted in privatisation=the transfer of industries or services previously owned by the state to ownership private businesses to make profit
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1988 The Education Reform Act

  • The National Curriculum- common curriculum for all pupils aged 5-16. took the responsibility away from the teachers to the government on what students should be learning, 3 core and 7 foundation subjects. A system for national assessment, SATs-all students around the UK sat the same tests and graded against the same criteria. Also gave everyone on the opportunity to gain the basic skills needed for a job e.g English and Maths
  • Formula Funding- funding of schools dependent on the number of pupils they attract, results in better results, resources, staff. Allows them to be selective if they are over subscribed
  • Ofsted-Office for Standards in Education. An organisation monitoring standards in schools by regular inspections. The results of these inspections are accessible to the public e.g teachers, parents etc. Those that are outstanding are likely to attract more students= more formula funding=better resources
  • League tables-results of the examinations are ranked from one school to another. Info accessible to all, helps parents choose their child's school-parentocracy, helps to improve or maintain the quality of teaching 
  • Local control of education-less local authority control, schools could opt out of their LEAs controlling the budget, this gave the headteacher more flexibility with where they can spend the formula funding
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1997-2010 Labour Government

  • Specialist schools-schools encouraged to specialise into a particular subject, funding was given towards that subject, this is to reward those school that excel in a certain area, 10% of pupils were all allowed to be selected on aptitude
  • Academies replacing failing schools-aim is to work in partnership with employers and other sponsors to replace failing schools(grade 4), this makes them more private than state-schools as the sponsors and businesses have the control, to provide high quality teaching in deprived areas, well experienced teachers would work in these schools to raise the standards
  • Curriculum 2000-the introduction of sitting AS Level exams in one year and A Level exams in another, this allowed students to retake any failing exams several times, what they called a modular system
  • Educational Maintenance Allowance(EMA)-financial scheme to encourage the working class young to continue on with Further Education, 12 hours a week, £10, £20, £30 a week, also helps with attendance
  • Sure Start & Education Action Zone-Sure Start increases meritocracy and gives everyone the same start to compulsory school, tackle cultural and material deprivation, EAZ worked with parents and businesses to improve standards of education 
  • Introduction of vocational education- the new labour introduced more hands on and technical qualifications such as: apprenticeships, BTECs, NVQs, diplomas
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2010-2015 Coalition Government

  • Rise in tuition fees- the government gave universities the approval to charge each student each year up to £9,250, 76% of universities took this on, too many people going to universities, but unemployed after leaving
  • The Academies Act- previously, changing into an academy was only for the inner-city failing school but the coalition opened that up to all schools that were outstanding, free schools by charities, religious groups parents were now permitted to set up, these schools have their own admissions and appeal policy
  • FSM and Pupil Premium- new policy-provided extra resources for those from low income family background and those who afre eligible were entitled to free school meals, the aim was to raise meritocracy and social mobility hoping that the students will strive for top end jobs 
  • Reform of Vocational Ed/Abolishment of EMA-scrapped EMA to cut gov. spending, rather than trying to increase the status of vocational education they doing raded them by only allowing 125 vocational courses to be credited as an equivalent to GCSEs, they dropped the diploma system which resulted in decreasing the choice people had on what type of education they would like
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2015-2016 Conservatives

Introduction of linear exams

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Gender Policies

  • The Coalitions reform of the National Curriculum-Coalition gov. policy of linear exams and less coursework will disadvantage girls, as they are more successful in C/W 
  • The Butler Education Act(1944)- although open to both boys and girls, grade boundaries were higher for girls to go well and secure a place in grammar schools
  • The Education Reform Act-introduced C/W as part of assessment for GCSE, which statistics show girls do better at
  • The Education Reform Act: Marketisation+League Table- marketisation created competition which girls were seen to be doing well in. Jackson(1998) said league tables allowed the positive label of achieving highly, turn in SFP as they are would be selected for the outstanding schools
  • 1993 Conservatives- GIST- girls into science and technology to increase females into these subjects so they can also apply for the top end jobs 
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Ethnicity Policies

  • Compensatory Education(1975)- implemented a lot of encouragement on English lang. skills among ethnic minority pupils e.g more intervention(ethnic minority pupils)
  • The Education Reform Act(1988)- made a conscious effort to make the curriculum more culturally diverse e.g RE, textbook
  • Social Inclusion Policy(1990)-monitor exam results of ethnic minorites to see if they needed more support, qualifying teachers in ESOL more funding fo EAL programmes. 
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