Durkheim 2

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Feelings matter:

  • moral feelings.
  • 'moral' for Durkheim has a much wider meaning.
  • all sorts of contraining ideas and emotions not just prohibition againsr stealing or certain sexual behaviour.
  • Power of moral ideas come from the fact that society is so much bigger than us. 
  • all have to think everything for ourselves but the obligations to do with society loom larger in our minds than anything we could have thoughto n our own.
  • feel the weight of public opinion and society makes us do lots of things, even things we dont want to. 
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how they shape our actions:

  • moral feelings remind us of our social affliation and obligations
  • what we think as an individual's consceicne is actually shaped by the feelings that society places in the conscience. 
  • In early work Durkheim used the term Consceince collective to get this idea over
  • the process doesnt end with individual consciences because how people act according to thier consciences shapes the relationships between people.
  • those relationship are what make up society. 

Circular process = relationships = society = feelings = consciences = back to the start. 

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...

  • Durkheim - collective conscience - changed to collective representations. 
  • wanted people to think of ideas of society which we keep in our heads which affect our feelings and behaviours - causing us to act in a way that keeps society reproducing itself.
  • some people say this thoery cant account for change as its circular. 
  • but change can take place in relationships as its a vulnerable part of the circle. 
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...

  • Durkheim - collective conscience - changed to collective representations. 
  • wanted people to think of ideas of society which we keep in our heads which affect our feelings and behaviours - causing us to act in a way that keeps society reproducing itself.
  • some people say this thoery cant account for change as its circular. 
  • but change can take place in relationships as its a vulnerable part of the circle. 
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Durkheim: puts it his way:

" on'es idea of patriotism, or of individual dignity, is the object of science, not the criterion of scientific truth" 

  • means that social scientists must get rid of all our preconceived and ideas must be put to dissection.

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industrialisation and Urbanisation:

  • society is going to change anyway, whatever we do. 
  • change in relationships, which effect the collective conscience isnt just increased by the DOL, also consequence of changing patterns of settlement in idustrial capitalism. 

Low and High density interactions: 

  • low = particular and concrete. 
  • repreesentations produced by high-density interaction are abstract and general.
  • the most specialised and cosmopolitan societies uniformly high-density? 
  • Durk didnt think so and education studies is one of the disciplines that has drawn very heavily on his insights to this area.
  • Bernstien - speech codes - different social background - different expereiences of cormal education. 
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industrialisation and Urbanisation:

  • society is going to change anyway, whatever we do. 
  • change in relationships, which effect the collective conscience isnt just increased by the DOL, also consequence of changing patterns of settlement in idustrial capitalism. 

Low and High density interactions: 

  • low = particular and concrete. 
  • repreesentations produced by high-density interaction are abstract and general.
  • the most specialised and cosmopolitan societies uniformly high-density? 
  • Durk didnt think so and education studies is one of the disciplines that has drawn very heavily on his insights to this area.
  • Bernstien - speech codes - different social background - different expereiences of cormal education. 
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Collective conscience in High density societies:

  • Depnd on each other and must co-operate to survice and prospoer.
  • everyone has a Contribution
  • should do the work that you ar best Suited for.
  • Society made up of individuals. 
  • these lead to an Organic society. 
  • once everyone doing same thing the collective conscience kept them together making them think the same (Mechanical solidarity) 
  • now we all do different things but know we must co-operate (Organic solidarity) 
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Collective conscience in High density societies:

  • Depnd on each other and must co-operate to survice and prospoer.
  • everyone has a Contribution
  • should do the work that you ar best Suited for.
  • Society made up of individuals. 
  • these lead to an Organic society. 
  • once everyone doing same thing the collective conscience kept them together making them think the same (Mechanical solidarity) 
  • now we all do different things but know we must co-operate (Organic solidarity) 
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Paine & individualism:

  • says without govt. men are social and sufficiently rational to recognise the law of nature that we should not interfere with the life, liberty and property of other men.
  • individualism is where everyone counts and every have: 
  • "intellectual rights, rights of the mind, and also those rights of acting as an individual for his own comfort and happiness, which are not injurious to the natural rights of others" 
  • Durkheim: people were much freer than they were with mechanical solidarity to make up thier own morality but they must take care not to intefere with others. 
  • as long as people believe in moral individualism there is no need for the religious beliefs that went with mechanical solidarity. 
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What happened to God?

  • Came up with the idea of god what we were actually trying to describe was society.
  • it gave a good feeling to people - god was working through them
  • Durkheim said 'the thrill was not an illusion' 
  • a thrill of society working through us - as when a great orator eels the power of an assembly flowing through them 
  • is moments of transport at religious gatherings gives us distinction between sacred and profance things.
  • scared is the everyay and boring life that we are able to escape at special times. 
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Origin of religions:

  • distinction between sacred and profane explains the origins of religions. These religion people attach the force they feel to symbols - animals places etc.
  • how can we feel society working through us in an advanced complex society where people are less religious.
  • what worried durk = didnt think moral individualism was enough on its own and hat society needed religion. 
  • every so often people need to be brought together for special occasion on which they will all do the same thing and so will have their common ideas and beliefs reaffirmed. 
  • as the sense of togetherness creates a group. 
  • works best if everyone is feeling the thrill of society working through them.
  • we feel as one says Durkheim, when shouting the same incoherent cry together. 
  • reinforces solidarity. 
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