Data Portability


JPEG joint photographic experts group

JPEG is a compressed bitmapped image.

file type that keeps file size low by reducing repetition of pixel patterns throughout the image.

nowadays it is used widely used file type for web pages. the amount of compression can be varied at high levels of compression a very low file size can be achieved.

JPEG does not support animation or transparency and the compression is lossy which means that the image detail is permanently lost

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GIF- graphics interchange format

  • GIF is a compressed bitmapped image file type
  • GIF files can be animated sequences of images or singular still images
  • lossless compression techniques are employed when GIF files are saved
  • their file sizes are kept low by resricting the colour depth to just 256 colours
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PNG-portable network graphics

  • PNG is a compressed bitmapped image file type developed for online image sharing.
  • likle GIF files they employ lossless compression techniques and support transparency but they do not support animation
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TIFF-tagged image file format

  • usable in microsoft windows and apple macintosh operating systems
  • TIFF can behave like containers for holding images of other file types.
  • they can use both lossy and lossless compression techniques
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  • apple developed it as their native graphic file type for the interchange of graphics between apple products
  • the format has been supseeded by PDF since the mac OS X released
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txt file will be store character strings that can be readily viewed and edited by the user in many word processors and other software that is capable of handling plain text

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CSV comma separated values

  • when stored as a spread sheet or database ,the tabular structure has clearly visable columns
  • in CSV data values are organised into rows that get stored on separate lines
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RTF rich text format

  • used for text based documents and supports basic formatting
  • it allows the movements of text files between different word processors and different operating systems
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PDF portable document format

  • holds text,images and potentially some regions which can be filled by the user
  • creating a PDF can be achieved using a save or print command
  • graphics, spreadsheets, web pages and several other files can be exported to pdf format
  • assistive technology embedded for the visually impaired
  • compression techniques keep the file size very low
  • the use of metadata for improving the speed of text searches and for labeling the document
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WAV windows waveform

  • file format is lossless and thus provides a close likeness to the original analogue sound
  • recording sounds can be done at very high sample rates to generate very high quality sounds
  • however WAV file sizes are generally too large to be practical for distrubution online
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MP3 MPEG audio layer 3

  • uses lossy compression techniques
  • WAV files can be easily saved as files in MP3 format having more sound to fit into storage devices without deterioation in sound quality
  • music industry professionals tend to not use MP3 due to the deterioration being unacceptable
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WMA windows media audio

  • developed by microsoft to compete with MP3 popularity
  • it uses lossy compression and the amount of compression can be varied
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MIDI musical instrument digital interface

  • music held in a MIDI format is captured via a serial interface connected to an electrical musical instrument
  • data can be both received from the interface alond MIDI channels
  • MIDI is thus not a format for the storage of sound data merely its transmission.
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MPEG moving/motion picture experts group

  • widely used video file format. it uses delta compression which involves transmitting the pixels between selected frames of a video
  • to sustain the video quality a whole frame must be transmitted but at less intervals
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MP4 MPEG4 part 14

  • dseigned for digital streaming over the internet
  • it stores and plays audio with video
  • MP3 audio can be played on an MP4 player
  • it supports subtitling and online streaming
  • lossy compression is used to reduce large file sizes
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AVI audio video interleave

  • supports multiple audio and multiple video streams playing back from 1 file
  • AVI files do not store the ratio of width to height for playback
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