Culture is the way of life of a particular group/society.


  • A norm is an expected action or accepted behaviour that is based on a culture.
  • Norms are relative and vary between country, gender, ethnicity, age and culture. 


  • Values are beliefs that a culture or society see as important. 
  • Values are believed in by a society collectively and their actions are based on values.

Norms and values are relative and can change over time.

  • Cultural diversity - culturally embedded differences within society.
    Intracultural diversity - diversity within cultures e.g. north vs. south Britain.
    Intercultural diversity - diversity between cultures e.g. Muslims eat halal, Christians don't.
  • Cultural hybridity - when two or more cultures are combined, it creates a new culture.
  • Multiculturalism - different ethnic groups living side by side.
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Types of culture

Popular culture

  • Accessed by the masses and associated with shallow activities e.g. pop music, football.

High culture

  • Associated with the elite and upper class e.g. opera and ballet.


  • A minority part of a culture eg. emos, skinheads.

Global culture

  • Emerges due to patterns of migration, trends in international travel and the spread of the mass media e.g. emailing, New Years celebrations.

Consumer culture

  • Based on cultural and economic factors and buying and selling goods e.g. iphones and amazon (not all cultures are consumers).
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