breaking molecules by heating them - thermal decomposition reaction

hydrocarbon heated to turn into gas

gas passed over catalyst

long molecule broken down - cracked

also can mix steam with water - at high temperature

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breaking down molecules by heating them - thermal decomposition

hydrocarbon is heated to turn into gas

gas passed over catalyst

large molecules broken down spilt apart  - crack

also can mix with steam and gas - at high temperature


general  formula - cnh2n+2


no double bonds

stays orange


general formula - cnh2n

double bonds


orange from colourless

ethene can be hydrated with steam to make ethanol

fermentation uses yeast to make sugar to make ethanol

sugar (arrow) carbon dioxide + ethanol

polymersation means short alkenes molecules momners joining together to form long molecules polymers

oil crushed plant material

crushed plant material between metal plates and oil is out

water and other impurties are also out

wegners noticed that fossils where the same on the opposite side on the analtic ocean

biogerable means breaking down of microorganisms

emulsion means water and other droplets supsend on to other liquid

emulsifies naturally water and oil want to seperate but emulifsirer stop emulsion from seperating and make more stable

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biology and physics

artic animals - thick body fat  thick fur camouflage  , desert animals  thin body fat think fur camouflage , desert plant think stem to store water , spines instead of leave large surface area ,  extremepohilics gentic variation environmental variation sexual asexual genetic engineering , embryo, transplant plants take cuttings  adult cell cloning natural selection evolution  physics - non renewables , renewables  wind wave tidal geothermal solar biofuels hydroelectric  all the examples of  all renewables  wave basics electromagnetic spectrum big baang theory , the doppler effect  1. light from other galaxies is red - shifted 2. the futher the galaxy the greater the red shift  transverse waves difrfaction refraction reflection longtidual

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