CORE Biology - Diet and Exericise

CORE Biology - Diet and Exericise

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Diet and Exericise Introduction

Regular exercise and a balanced diet are needed to help keep the body healthy.

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Diet

·         Too little food leads to a person being underweight and prone to certain types of illnesses

·         Too much food leads to a person being overweight and prone to other types of illnesses

 

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Nutrients

A mix of different types of food in the correct amounts is needed to keep the body healthy. The main groups are carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

·         Carbohydrates – found in potatoes, pasta etc. needed for a source of energy for life processes.

·         Fats  - found in cheese, butter etc. needed for source of energy for life processes and make cell membranes and insulate our bodies

·         Proteins – found in meat, fish etc. needed for growth and repair (cells)

·         Mineral ions and vitamins – needed in small amounts for healthy functioning  of the body

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Imbalenced Diets

An imbalanced diet causes malnourishment e.g.:

·         Little food – underweight

·         Too much food – overweight

A poor diet leads to deficiency diseases e.g.:

·         Little vitamin Drickets (affects growth of skeleton)

·         Type 2 diabetes – from a poor diet (usually overeating)

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Exercise

If a diet consists of food with a lower energy content than the amount of energy that their body uses then they will lose body mass

 

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Metabolic Rate

The metabolic rate is the speed at which chemical reactions take place. Varies because of:

·         Inherited factors

·         Age

·         Gender

·         Proportion of muscle to fat

·         Amount of exercise

The metabolic rate increases as we exercise and stays high for a while afterwards.

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Other Factors

Other factors affect health too, including inherited factors. E.g. cholesterol level in the blood. Cholesterol – made in liver and needed for healthy cell membranes. Too much cholesterol increases risk of heart disease and diseased arteries.  

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