Consolidation of power

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  • Created by: Zobby
  • Created on: 20-05-16 12:29

Why difficult to form opposition to regime by 34

  • Reichstag Fire 1933
  • Election Campaign for March Election 1933
  • Enabling Act March 1933
  • Civil Service
  • TU's/Workers
  • State Governments
  • Political parties
  • Terror as a tool
  • Use of propaganda/public opinion
  • Relations with the church 1933-34 - Concordat
  • Night of the Long Knives - massacre + impact, SA reduced to propaganda
  • Legislation of murder
  • Popular support
  • Army support
  • New post-fuher leader
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Hitler came to power through legal means

+ Enabling Act 1933
+Civil Service
+State governments
+Political parties
+Legislation of murder
+New post-fuhrer leader
- Terror as a tool
- Election campain March 1933
- TU's/Workers

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Why SA eliminated in NOTLK

  • SS got rid of
  • New militia - Rohm trying to take over army
  • SA emphasised left-wing aspects Nazis and Cons elites/ Hitler threatened
  • Support for Army - foreign expansion
  • Succession to Hindenburg
  • Street fighting force - becoming too powerful + needed to be tamed
  • Never challenge discipline + professional expertise of Army
  • Hitler called a meeting between leaders that didn't agree, tension did not ease
  • Von Papen (vice-Chancellor) made speech calling end to SA + criticised policy of co-ordination. Hitler realised needed to satisfy Conservative Elites and had to destroy SA immediately. Influential figures in Nazi party like Himmler and Goring helped organise the purge
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Significance of NOTLK in Hitler establishing power

  • Hindenburg's death - fuhrer
  • Nazi regime stabilised and threat of SA removed
  • German Army supported regime w/ elimination of SA + swore oath of loyalty to Hilter
  • SA reduced to propaganda
  • SS more powerful. German generals feared SA but failed to recognise power SS had as party's main institution of terror
  • Hitler himself secured own political supremacy so Nazi regime could not be easily challenged
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Why Hitler intro'd Enabling Act 1933

  • Allowed Hitler to intro decrees for 4 years w/out reference to Reichstag
  • Allowed full control of law establishing legal dictatorship and legal foundation w/ more respect for civil service and Cons Elites who bought into power
  • Allowed Hitler to make agreements w/ foreign states effectively ending G democracy. Laid basis for intro series legislation incl. removal political parties and state gvts
  • Act was passed in climate of fear in Reichstag w/ SS and SA officers intimidating those present in building
  • As a law effectively rubber stamp for Hitler's power
  • After intro cabinet met less frequently and allowed Hitler to intro laws banning political parties, TU's and state gvts
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What is meant by Volksgemeinschaft?

  • National Community
  • Hitler always claimed National Socialism more than just political ideology - movement that aimed to transform G society - rejecting values of socialism, liberalism and Christianity
  • Notion all 'racially pure Germans lived together in one national community'
  • Meant to cut across divisions of class, region and religion. Concept it was least popular w/ the workers + only supported by committed Nazis
  • Typified by 'blood and soil' ideology w/ peasants and working the land
  • Part of community, women's place was in home + role as child bearers was emphasised
  • Young people to be members of Hitler Youth
  • All Germans had to be loyal to Hitler and Nazi state
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Why SS established control over Germany's police

  • SS ruthless organisation that was responsible for NOTLK - weakening SA leadership emerged as polices arm of Nazi Party
  • Himmler wished to execute Hitler's vision of totalitarian state whereby gvt would have full control over population + terror which would be used by those opposed the Nazi gvt
  • Hitler needed organisation which would not be restrained by legal/bureaucratic qualms
  • SS represented racial elite + controlling police meant able to monitor + survey population. SS ran concentration camps. SS concentration camps deliberatley brutalised to remove feelings of humanity towards prisoners
  • Used murder, torture and arbitrary arrest to ensure enemies of state e.g. Communists/Socialists dealt with
  • SS held up elite force w/in Nazi Party + its members held as role models for racially based 'people's community'
  • Under SS control police system was an instrument of Fuhrer and Nazi Party
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Had Germany become a totalitarian state

+ 1 political party and 1 leader controlling everything
+ TU's replaced by GLF - removal political parties and state governments
+ Police bought under control, SA/SS/Gestapo. Acted against opponents. Arbitrary arrest, torture, murder, imprisonment key
+ Decree for the Protection of the People legalised
+ Opposition w/in party itself removed - NOTLK, Fuhrer following Hindenburg's death, control of army
+ Hitler Myth - propaganda
+ Hitler defended G from enemies like Communists
+ Press under control by 34 editors made responsible for content of papers
- Army could still potentially overthrow Hitler
- Cautious path with churches

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Police state essential Hitler's power?

+ Terror and repression - opponents, SA, SS, SD, NOTLK, Gestapo, powers of torture etc. Special courts set up for enemies
- Gestapo - efficient but ltd in no's and info based on gossip created lots of paperwork
- Hitler Myth
- Workers/Economy - Creation of jobs, STJ/ drive economic self-sufficiency in prep for war 
- Propaganda helped people with hardships when prepping for war + in war
- Churches - some same ideologies
- Army gave oath of loyalty
- Youth - Hitler Youth underpriviliged
- Women - biggest supporters regime
- Peasantry - 'blood and soil' ideology
- Industrialists + businessmen - generally loyal out of self-interest as TU's crushed
- Preparation for war - German's did not protest but still not patriotic frenzy had been in 1914

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