Electronic/electrical circuits that a computer is assembled from. The platform on which software executes.
Memory that is directly adressable by the processor.
A seperately addressable area of main memory.
Random access memory; volatile main memory in which the locations can be accessed directly in any order with the same access time for all writing and reading operations.
Read-only memory; non-volatile main memory that cannot be written to once it is set up.
Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory; it contents may be altered but writing is about 100 times slower than reading.
A set of parallell wire connecting independent components of a computer system.
System bus or external bus
The main highway connecting the processor, main memory and I/O controllers; it is made up of a data bus, an address bus and a control bus.
Allows the CPU to communicate with peripherals.
A computer device that is not part of the CPU. It can external (e.g. mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, memory stick or scanner) or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive.
A hardware unit that sends or recieves data or stores data by communicating with the processor and main memory through an I/O controller.
Permanent storage memory not directly connected to the processor; also called backing store.
Main memory address
A unique numeric code corresponding to a location in memory
Stored program concept
A program must be resident in the main memory to be executed; it is processed by fetching machine code instructions in sequence from main memory and executing them one at a time, in th processor.
A very fast memory location inside the processor or I/O controller.
A register not assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmer may use general-purpose registers.
A register assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use some but not all dedicated registers.
The clock speed of the processor is the frequency in megahertz or gigahertz at which the processor executes instructions.
The number of digits in a binary word.
The number of signal wires or lines allocated to the bus.