ATP, NAD and Coenzyme A

A coenzyme is a molecule that aids the function of an enzyme by tranferring a chemical group from one molecule to another.

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ATP function and structure

  • ATP is made up of a ribose sugar, a phosphate and an adenine.
  • It is synthesised from ADP and an inorganic phosphate. 
  • ATP diffuses into the part of the cell that needs energy.
  • It is broken back down into ADP and an inorganic phosphate. The chemical energy that is released is used by the cell. 
  • The reaction is catalysed by ATPase

ATP is a good energy source for many reasons:

  • No energy is wasted: only a small manageable amount stored
  • Small soluble molecule that is easily transported
  • Easily broken down
  • Energy can be transferred to another molecule by a phosphate group transfer
  • It can't pass out of the cell
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NADP overview and role

  • Transfers hydrogen from one molecule to another (it can reduce or oxidise a molecule)
  • It supplies the hydrogen needed to make glucose in the Light-Independent reaction.
  • Reduced NADP is generated with a proton from the stroma and the electrons from the end of the electron chain.
  • Reduced NADP is recycled to NADP
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Coenzyme A

  • Transfers acetate between molecules
  • It is involved in respiration
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Aleena Godinez


need more information about Coenzyme A.

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