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  • Created by: Arianne
  • Created on: 31-01-13 11:00

Clones in Nature

Clone: a GENETICALLY identical individual

Vegetative Propagation: the production of structures in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms.  These offspring are genetically idententical to the parent.

Advantages of Asexual Reproduction

  • Quick, allows organisms to reproduce rapidly.
  • Can be completed when sexual reproduction is not possible.
  • All offspring have the genetic information to enable them to survive in their environment.

Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction

  • Does not product any genetic variety, so any genetic parental weaknesses are passed on to the offspring.
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Artificial Clones in Agriculture

Artificial Vegetative Propagation

  • Taking cuttings
  • Grafting

Artificial Propagation Using Tissue Culture

  • Micropropagation by Callus Tissue Culture
    • Small piece of tissue, usually from shoot tip.  Called an Explant.
    • Explant placed on nutrient growth, forming a mass of undifferentiated cells called a callus.
    • Single callus cells are removed and placed on shoot-stimulating hormones.
    • The growing shoots are moved onto root-stimulating hormones. 
    • growing plants are them acclimatised in a greenhouse before being moved outside.
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Cloning Animals

Artificial Cloning

  • Splitting Embryos
    • Cells developing from an embryo are separated out, each developing a genetically identical organism.
  • Nuclear Transfer
    • Mamary cell and an enucleate (without nucleus) egg cell are fused by electro-fusion.
    • reconstructed cell is implanted into surrogate uterus.

Non-Reproductive Cloning

  • Therapeutic Cloning
    • If cells are genetically identical to the individuals own, they will not be rejected by the immune system.
    • Cell culture of organs cuold mean an end for waiting lists for organs.
    • Cloned cells can be used to generate any type of cell because they are totipotent.
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