Classification & Explanation For Schizophrenia

  • Created by: Kathryn
  • Created on: 08-01-15 18:12


Coined from the Greek words meaning 'split mind' by Bleuler. This emphasises that it is a fragmented nature of thinking and not a split personality.

The psychotic disorder is characterised by distorted thinking, impaired emotional responses, poor interpersonal skills and a distortion of reality.

It is an episodic illness in which there are periods of psychotic disturbances and normal functioning. Psychotic episodes can last from a month to a year. Symptoms usually appear after a few weeks/months of a prodominal period - where the patients mood and behaviours change.

Usually develops in early adult life ,and although men and women are equally affected, men tend to be diagnosed around 5-10 years earlier. Sczhiophrenia can be diagnosed in children but it is very rare.

The prevalance rate in most countries is 1% for the over 18 years of age population.

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Classification Systems

ICD 10 

Requires important sypmtoms to be present for 1 month.


Signs of disturbance must be shown for at least 6 months.

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Diagnostic Criteria

1 of the following symptoms:

  • Thought echo or insertion
  • Dellusions of control, influence or passivity
  • Hallucinations
  • Innappropriate cultural delusions

At least 2 of the following:

  • Hallucinations along with delusions
  • Neologisms, imparied language
  • Negative symptoms
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  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Repeated sounds
  • Frenetic activity
  • Smiling at bad news
  • Innappropiate affect
  • Thought disturbance
  • Insertion
  • Language impairments
  • Neologisms


  • Reduced motivation
  • Littele emotion shown
  • Difficulty planning actions
  • Flat affect
  • Psychomotor disturbances
  • Catatonia
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Paranoid Type - This type is mainly focused on delusions and hallucinations.

Catatonic Type - Dominated by some of the following; motoric immobility or excessive motor activity, extreme negativism, mutism, peculiar voluntery movement, echolaia or echopraxia.

Disorganized Type - Meets the following criteria; disorganized speech and behaviour, flat or inappropiate affect.

Undifferentiated Type - The symptoms meet the diagnostic criteria but don't fit any of the above types.

Residual Type - There is absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and catatonic behaviour and there is continuing evidence of negative symptoms. 

Type 1 - Characterised by positive symptoms 

Type 2 - Characterised by negative symptoms 

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There is a lack of agreement in the outcome of schizophrenic patients.

Kraeplin believed it was impossible to recover from, where as Johnstone in a longitudinal study found that 2/3 of patients make a substantial recovery.

It has been found that biological, psychological and social factors affect the outcome.

Schizophrenia has co-morbidity with depression.

Around 10-15% of Schizophrenics commit suicide.

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  1. Difference between ICD and DSM
  2. Name 2 negative symptoms and 2 positive symptoms 
  3. What is the prevalance rate in most countries
  4. Whare the characteristics of the catatonic type
  5. Who found that 2/3 of schizophrenics make somewhat of a recovery
  6. What is the prodominal period
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