Coined from the Greek words meaning 'split mind' by Bleuler. This emphasises that it is a fragmented nature of thinking and not a split personality.
The psychotic disorder is characterised by distorted thinking, impaired emotional responses, poor interpersonal skills and a distortion of reality.
It is an episodic illness in which there are periods of psychotic disturbances and normal functioning. Psychotic episodes can last from a month to a year. Symptoms usually appear after a few weeks/months of a prodominal period - where the patients mood and behaviours change.
Usually develops in early adult life ,and although men and women are equally affected, men tend to be diagnosed around 5-10 years earlier. Sczhiophrenia can be diagnosed in children but it is very rare.
The prevalance rate in most countries is 1% for the over 18 years of age population.
Requires important sypmtoms to be present for 1 month.
Signs of disturbance must be shown for at least 6 months.
1 of the following symptoms:
- Thought echo or insertion
- Dellusions of control, influence or passivity
- Innappropriate cultural delusions
At least 2 of the following:
- Hallucinations along with delusions
- Neologisms, imparied language
- Negative symptoms
- Repeated sounds
- Frenetic activity
- Smiling at bad news
- Innappropiate affect
- Thought disturbance
- Language impairments
- Reduced motivation
- Littele emotion shown
- Difficulty planning actions
- Flat affect
- Psychomotor disturbances
Paranoid Type - This type is mainly focused on delusions and hallucinations.
Catatonic Type - Dominated by some of the following; motoric immobility or excessive motor activity, extreme negativism, mutism, peculiar voluntery movement, echolaia or echopraxia.
Disorganized Type - Meets the following criteria; disorganized speech and behaviour, flat or inappropiate affect.
Undifferentiated Type - The symptoms meet the diagnostic criteria but don't fit any of the above types.
Residual Type - There is absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and catatonic behaviour and there is continuing evidence of negative symptoms.
Type 1 - Characterised by positive symptoms
Type 2 - Characterised by negative symptoms
There is a lack of agreement in the outcome of schizophrenic patients.
Kraeplin believed it was impossible to recover from, where as Johnstone in a longitudinal study found that 2/3 of patients make a substantial recovery.
It has been found that biological, psychological and social factors affect the outcome.
Schizophrenia has co-morbidity with depression.
Around 10-15% of Schizophrenics commit suicide.
- Difference between ICD and DSM
- Name 2 negative symptoms and 2 positive symptoms
- What is the prevalance rate in most countries
- Whare the characteristics of the catatonic type
- Who found that 2/3 of schizophrenics make somewhat of a recovery
- What is the prodominal period