The policy making and policy implementation roles of the civil service were separated.
Civil servants working in Whitehall continue to advise ministers, but pollicy implementation functions and the delivery of public services were transferrred to executive agencies (e.g. HM Prison Service).
These operate at arm's length from govt departements.
A chief executive is responisble for their day-to-day operations.
Many activities of govt departements and executive agencies were contracted out to the private sector, which, it was claimed, would provide cheaper and more efficient services.
Private sector finance has been used to fund public projects through the Private Finance Initiative.
Executive agency- an agency responisble for the delivery of govt policy that is subordinate to a govt departement but enjoys significant autonomy in its day-to-day operations.
Whitehall-- the UK civil service and govt departments, named after the area of London in which many departments are based.
Marketisation- the extension of market mechanisms into govt and the public sector: for example, by the transfer of the provision of public services to the private sector.