-'Victim' of Pompey's legislation from sole consulship of 52BC that there must be a five year gap between holding office and taking a province.
-Response to a shortage of eligible governors.
-Those who had never taken up an office were first to be sent (Cicero and Bibulus)
-Corruption was rife in provinces because of Pompey's legislation preventing bribery- men needed to extort from provinces to gain money to pay off voters.
-'Contrary to my wishes and quite unexpected'.
-Hated being absent from Rome.
-Frightened that, bearing in mind political climate, his term may be extended.
Duties of Governor
-Command in war.
-Maintain peace and security.
-Ensure taxes collected.
-Arbitrate any internal matters/ tribal disbutes.
-Deal with legal matters
-Control his legati (Cicero had 4, one of which was Quintus), who helped run the province, quaestor and administrator team.
-Previous governor= Appius Claudius Pulcher- very corrupt and rude.
-Sold tax contracts, but also introduced a poll tax and a 'door' tax for his own benefit, allowed towns to pay money not to have legions stationed in them.
-Threat of Parthian invasion:
- 2 undersized legions
- Small, insufficient levies
- Untrustworthy client kings on borders
- Parthians crossed Euhrates in September
- BUT Cassius at Antioch nearby to help
-Sensitive situation regarding businessmen- needed to keep them amicable but in line with his ideas, root out corruption (upheld all previous arrangements on the understanding that they were 'straight').
Cicero's Actions- Military
1. Took advantage of Cilicia's mountain frontier- secured.
2. Utilised client kingdom of Cilicia.
3.Claimed a lot of glory from Cassius' actions.
4. Subsequently subdued a set of mountain bandits for which he demanded a thanksgiving.
5. Supplicatio granted (despite Cato's opposition)
Cicero's actions- Brutus
- Nephew of Cato.
-Asked Cicero to recall his debts from the king of Cappadocia.
-Problems- Parthian threat, a lack of money and even greater debts to Pompey.
-Cicero made a deal- pay back 800000 per month- not even cover the interest.
-Brutus used other connections, a former corrupt and brutal prefect with his own cavalry squadron- Scaptius who said they would extract his debts.
-Cicero settle debts at his own level, but refused to judge against Scaptius- dodged issue.
Cicero left province with ill-equipped quaestor who was known to extort and Cicero had no real attachment to people or province.