Vibrio Cholerae is a bacterium that causes the disease cholera it occurs naturally in plakton. It is a prokaryotic organism. It is common in areas of poor sanitation. Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile bacterium, this can be seen in live samples as the cells appear to shake. Plasmids in the bacterim transfer the role of being resistance to antibiotics. When Vibrio Cholare infects the small intestine it takes up residence in or near the micro villi. The bacterium has a high surface area to volume ratio this helps to maximise the diffusion of substances from the epithelial cells.
How does cholera cause diahhoea?
Vibrio cholerae produces toxins which increase the secretion of chloride ions into the lumen of the small intestine. This causes osmosis to take place as the chloride ions lower the water potential of the lumen. Water moves out of the blood and through the epithelial cells and into the lumen via osmosis. The increase of water in the lumen leads to very bad diahhorea which causes the body to become extremely dehydrated.
Oral Rehydration Soloutions
Oral rehydration soloutions are used to treat diahhoeal diseases. People suffering from diahhoea need to replace all the fluid they have lost in diahhoea. The quickest way to do that is to insert a drip into a persons vein however these are not always avaliable. Oral rehydration soloutions are used when cholera has affected a large popuation or a developing country. An oral rehydration soloution is a drink that contains large amounts of salts and sugars. Sodium ions are included to increase glucose absorbtion. Oral rehydration soloutions are very cheap and people administrating them dont have to be highly trained.