China One Child Policy

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  • Created by: Jiya
  • Created on: 07-04-16 18:32


  • in 1950, rate of population change in china 1.9%
  • previous governments encouraged large families to increase workforce
  • by 1970, growth unsustainable and large areas of china suffered from famine as not enough food, water and energy
  • in 1979 the government decided to introduce One Child Policy
  • policy has since prevented approx. 300 million babies being born
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  • China’s ethnic minorities, such as Uighurs and Tibetans, are exempt
  • families in countryside only permitted to have second child if first is a girl
  • recently couples that were only children themselves allowed to apply to have more kids
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  • women regularly inspected to check if they are pregnant
    • if pregnant, suffered forced abortions and sterilisations
  • families were successful in hiding new children
    • 1990: 23 million births but 2000 26 million 10 year olds
    • at least three million babies escaped notice of family planning officials
  • those caught can opt to pay a “social upbringing fee”
    • usually multiple of the average income in the city where the child is born
    • cost of education and healthcare
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  • those who had more than one child didn't receive benefits and were fined
  • policy keenly resisted in rural areas, where it was traditional to have large families
  • in urban areas, policy has been enforced strictly but remote rural areas have been harder to control.
  • many people claim some women, who became pregnant after they had already had a child, were forced to have an abortion and many women forcibly sterilised
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Social Impacts

  • by 2020, estimated men will outnumber womeen by 30-60 million
    • creates social tension as many men unable to get married
  • many women faced forced abortions and sterilisations
  • population made up of 'Little Emperors' who lack social skills gained with siblings
  • birth rate fallen since 1979, now population growth is 0.7%
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Economic Impacts

  • 22% China's population is over 60, expected to rise by 24%
    • puts financial strain on healthcare
  • increased dependancy rato
    • percentage of people over 65 to working age will increase from 10% in 2009 to 40% in 2050
  • by 2025, China expected to have more elderly than children
  • population 20-24 will drop by half between 2010 and 2020
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