Child development

Mrs mcpherson's work

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The child cries most of the time and sometimes seems panic-stricken. It can be very intense and the child will try to regain the attention of their attachment figur

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Involving a total loss of hope. The child is often apathetic and shows little interest in its surroundings. the child no longer looks for the attachment figure, shows little interest in comfort offered by others and may seek self-comfort trough thumb -sucking or rocking.

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During which the child seems to behave in a less distressed way. Although apparentky coping well and responding to others, the child seems emotionally detached. Little interest is shown when the attachment figure eventually reappears.

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Short and long term seperation

John Bowlby:

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  • he was criticised for his early work
  • he was too vague in his term 'seperation'
  • he failed to distinguish deprivation from privation.
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Separation after the formation of an attachment

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The failure to have formed an attachment

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Short term effects of deprivation

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  • Protest despair detachment
  • Temporary delay in intellectual development
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Long term effects of deprivation:

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  • Increased aggression - anti-social behaviour
  • Increasd clinging behaviour
  • Increased detachment
  • Psychsomatic disorders - 'affectionless psychopathy'
  • Increased risk of depression as an adult
  • Failure to form lasting and quality relationships in later life
  • Permanent delay in intellectual development
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Stages of attachment

Multiple attachments:

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6 weeks - 3 months:
Babies learn to distinguish between faces showing obvious pleasure when they recognise familiar faces. They are happy to be handled by strangers, preferring to be in human company rather than be left alone - hence the term used for tis stage.

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No attachment

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3 months - 7/8 months:

After making specific attachments, babies then go on to this stage. This is an important part of their socialisation process.

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Indiscriminate attachments:

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7/8 months:

Babies begin to be attracted to human faces and voices. First smiles begin at around the age of six weeks.

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Specific attachments:

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From 8 months:

At this age, babies begin to miss key people in their lives and show signs of distress eg. crying when they leave the room. Most babies also seem to have developed one particularly strong attachment, often to the mother. Babies also show wariness of strangers even when in the presence of their 'key' people. this wariness may quickly develop into fear, if the stranger makes some form of direct contact with the baby.

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