Chemistry C6

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  • Electrolysis is the flow of charge by moving ions and the discharge of ions at electrodes
  • An ionic solid cannot be electrolysed as the ions are in a fixed position and cannot move
  • The amount of substance produced during electrolysis increases as current increases and as time increases
  • The reaction between hydrogen and oxygen is 2H₂ + O₂ = 2H₂O
  • Advantages of using hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells in a spacecraft: no moving parts, compact and lightweight and provide water for the astronauts
  • Fuel cells are being developed by the car industry because they need to find fuels that are renewable and less polluting
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  • Redox reactions involve both reduction and oxidation
  • Iron can be protected from rusting by using a sacrificial metal
  • The optimum temperature for fermentation is 25-50⁰C
  • If the temperature is too low, the enzymes in the yeast are inactive
  • If the temperature is too high, the enzymes in the yeast are denatured
  • The molecular formula of ethanol is C₂H₅OH
  • The molecular formula of butanol is C₄H₉
  • Alcohol can also be made from ethene, ethene + water = ethanol
  • Fermentation of glucose = carbon dioxide + ethanol
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  • CFC's have been banned in the UK as they lead to the depletion of the ozone layer
  • More ultraviolet light can reach the surface of the Earth if the ozone layer is depleted
  • Ultraviolet light on CFC's makes highly reactive chlorine atoms.
  • These chlorine atoms in the stratosphere cause the depletion of the ozone layer
  • CFC's can be replaced with alkanes or HFC's as these will not damage the ozone layer
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  • Temporary hardness is caused by calcium hydrogencarbonate, which is removed by boiling
  • Hardness in water can be removed by passing the water through an ion-exchange column
  • Immiscible liquids, such as vegetable oild and water, form an emulsion when shaken with an emulisifier
  • Detergent molecules have a hydrophillic head and a hydrophobic tail
  • There are weak intermolecular forces between molecules of oil.
  • Solvent molecules make intermolecular forces with molecules of grease so that solvent molecules can surround molecules of grease
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