Chemistry C4

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ATOMIC STRUCTURE & ATOMIC BONDING

  • The Nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons
  • The electron has a charge of -1
  • The proton has a charge of +1
  • The neutron has a charge of 0
  • Metals form positive ions as they lose electrons
  • Non-metals form negative ions as they gain electrons
  • Isotopes are elements that have atoms of the same atomic number but different mass numbers
  • Ionic bonding happens because of the transfer of electrons from metals to non-metals
  • Sodium chloride and magnesium oxide form giant ion lattices as their ions attract
  • 'Dot and Cross' models can be used to represent the ionic bonding in compunds
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THE PERIODIC TABLE AND COVALENT BONDING

  • Non-metals combine by sharing electrons
  • Carbon dioxide and water are simple molecules with weak intermolecular forces between the molecules
  • Carbon dioxide and water have low melting points as the intermolecular forces are weak
  • The period to which an element belongs is the same as the number of occupied electron shells
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GROUPS

  • The group number is the same as the number of electrons in the outer shell
  • Rubidium and caesium are group 1 metals which react violently with water to give off hydrogen and make an alkaline solution
  • Group 1 metals have similar properties as they all need to lose one electron from their outside shell
  • Flame tests can be used to identify the presence of lithium, sodium and potassium
  • Chlorine is a green gas, bromine is a brown liquid and iodine is a grey solid
  • If a group 1 metal reacts with a group 7 non-metal the word equation for the formation of a metal halide can be constructed
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METALS AND WATER

  • Copper compounds are often blue
  • Iron (II) compounds are often light green
  • Iron (III) compounds are often orange/brown
  • The thermal decomposition of transition metal carbonates results in the metal oxide and carbon dioxide being made
  • Cu₂+ ions react with sodium hydroxide to make a blue soild in a precipitation reaction
  • Metals have high boiling points due to their strong metalic bonding
  • Superconductors conduct electricity with little or no resistance
  • Drinking water is purified by filtration, sedimentation and chlorination
  • Sulfates in water can be tested using barium chloride
  • Halides can be tested using silver nitrate
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