Chemistry- (Analysis and Synthesis)

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  • Created by: Em_New99
  • Created on: 01-06-15 18:08

Flame Test

Metal Ion - Flame Colour

  • Litihium (Li+)- Orange/ Crimson
  • Sodium (Na+)- Yellow
  • Potassium- Lilac
  • Calcium- Red
  • Barium (Ba2+)- Pale green
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Negative Ion Test

Anion (Negatively Charged Ion)- Test- Observation


Carbonates- Bubbling it through limewater- CO2 gas produced

Halide- Add dilute nitric acid followed by silver nitrate- Colour Precipitate. Chloride- White. Bromide- Cream. Iodine- Yellow

Sulphate- Add dilute HCL followed by barium chloride solution- White precipitate (means original compound was a sulphate)

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Positive Ions Test

Metal Ion- Colour of Precipitate- Furthur tests required


Copper Cu2+Blue

Iron Fe3+- Reddish Brown

Iron Fe2+- Green

Magnesium Mg2+ - White

Sodium- Yellow - Insoluble in excess NaOH, red flame test

Aluminium Al3+ - White

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Describe the process of carrying out a titration:

  • Put 25cm3 of alkali in a conical flask with some indicator- Methyl orange. You dont want universal as it only changes colour gradually. Not as accurate
  • Fill burette with 50ml of acid using funnel
  • Slowly add the acid to the alkali whilst swirling
  • Wait till the indicator changes colour
  • Record the amount needed to neutralise the acid
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Haber Process

  • Important industrial process. Produces Ammonia (NH2) used to make fertilisers
  • Nitrogen (obtained from the air) and hydrogen (obtained from natural gases)  are needed to make Ammonia


  • The hydrogen reacts with nitrogen to form ammonia. Bee=cause the reaction is reversible, ammonia breaks back down into nitrogen and hydrogen,
  • Higher pressures favour the forward reaction
  • Higher pressues, best % yield hence 200 atmospheres
  • Forward reaction is exothermic, means increasing the temprature will move the equilibrium the wrong way. 
  • Greater temprature, greater yield of ammonia
  • Lower tempratures, lower rate of reaction
  • Iron catalyst speeds up the reaction and keeps costs down.
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