chemistry 1b

hydrogenation, vegetable oils, emulsions, worlds early atmosphere, tectonicplates

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 21-06-12 15:33


Unsaturated oils contain molecules in which some of the carbon atoms are joined by double bonds add hydrogen which straightens it out and gives it a stronger bond and has a higher boiling point.The bonds are a lot stronger and give it a higher melting point this is what keeps butter solid at room temperature

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vegetable oils

The boiling points of vegetable oils are higher than the boiling of water. This means that the food cooked in oil tastes different to boiled foods. It also contains more energy. The boiling and melting points of oils may also be raised by adding hydrogen to their molecules. We call this 'Hardening' the oil.

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An emulsion is a mixture of oil and water that does not seperate.Oil and water do not mix together, but if the oil droplets can be made very small it is possible to produce a mixture of oil and water called an emulsion, To keep the oil and water from seperating we can use a chemical called an emulsifier. Important examples of food made like this include mayonaise and ice-cream.

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The earths early atmosphere

At one time scientists thought that the valleys and mountains were formed by the early molten earth cooling down and making crust like with a bowl of custrad when it cools down it shrinks and wrinkles up.

The structure of the earth consists of three layers-The core the crust and the mantle.The outer layer of the earth is very thin compared to its diametre.The layer below this is solid, But can flow in parts very slowly.

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The earths early atmosphere 2

The earths early atmosphere probably consisted mainly of the gas carbon dioxide.There could also have been water vapour and nitrogen, Plus small amounts of methane and ammonia. These gases were released by volcanoes as they erupted.Plants removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and produced oxygen.




Carbon dioxide-0.04%

Convert to degrees- 360/100 x percent

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