Chemistry - States of Matter

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States of Matter

The state with the most energy is GAS.

The state that has a regular pattern of particles is called a SOLID.

Liquids and solids can not be COMPRESSED because the particles are too close together.

Remember as termpreture INCREASES particles VIBRATE more.

When a liquid boils the particles VIBRATE so much that it FORCES the bonds to BREAK and produces a GAS.

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Methods of Separating

FILTRATION

Is to seperate insoluble soloutions such as water and sand and you would use filtration to seperate them.

DISTILLATION

This is uses to seperate a liquid from a mixture. To Keep/use the liquid.

It involves condensation and boiling the chemical with the lowest boiling point will come of FIRST.

FRACTIONAL DISTILATION seperates a mixture of many liquids.

EVAPORATION

HEAT a soloution, the SOLVENT evaporates and the SOLID remains.

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Atomic Structure

ATOMS

The Nucleus - In the middle of the atom, contains PROTONS and NEUTRONS, has a POSITIVE charge.

The Electrons - Move AROUND the NECLEUS, they are NEGATIVELY CHARGED, they have NO MASS.

Remember: Number of ELECTRONS equals number of PROTONS.

ATOMIC number and MASS number describe an ATOM.

Mass number - is TOTAL of protons and neutrons.

Atomic number - Number of PROTONS

To calculate NEUTRONS take number of PROTONS away from MASS NUMBER

MASS NUMBER - PROTONS = NEUTRONS

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