Changing populations- Migration

  • Created by: Zammi10
  • Created on: 09-03-15 19:54

Push and Pull factors- Enviormental

Dense population- pull factors

Ø   Good climate: People are attracted towards places with good climate

Ø  Rich fertile soil: Particularly in LEDC’s where more people are employed due to agricultural dependence and services

Ø  Good relief: Generally leads to better soil etc.

Dense population- push factors

  • Environmental:
  • Ø  High relief and infertile soil: People who are farmers etc. wouldn’t want to live in areas with infertile soil
  • Ø  Harsh Climate/extreme climates- can affect crop growth and consequently many other factors such as money and availability of food
  • Ø  Dense jungle (Amazon): Hard to penetrate to build houses or services. Removing trees could result in soil erosion


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Push and pull factors- Social

Pull factors

Ø  Good accessibility and services.- easy to get to and travel from.Particularly important now to have good services eg. WiFi esp. for businesses

Ø  Shops and leisure facilities

Ø  Culture

Ø  Good quality schooling

Ø  Health facilities

Push factors

  • Ø  Lack of leisure facilities: particularly for young people
  • Ø  Lack of services, schooling and medical facilites
  • Ø  Bad infrastructure: therefore bad accessibility and remote area


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Push and pull factors- Economic

Pull factors

Ø  Employment opportunities: Particularly young people migrate for work opportunities in urban factories etc.

Ø  Fertile soil is good for people who get income from agriculture and farming

Ø  People may wish to start businesses in developed areas with a lot of trade

Ø  Skilled and varied labour force needed in most industrial large cities

Push factors

Ø  Lack of trade links: NO JOBS

Ø  Infertile soil:lack of income from agriculture

Ø  Few economic resources

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Rural--> urban migration PUSH FACTORS

Push factors from rural areas:

Ø  Not enough money to feed families

Ø  Infertile soil so no food or money

Ø  Landowners replace workers with machinery therefore increased unemployment

Ø  Floods and droughts frequently affect crop growth- unsteady production

Ø  Not enough land to support growing families

Ø  People can’t afford fertilisers therefore can’t compete

Ø  Lack of schooling

Ø  Lack of medical care

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South Africa Case study

Push factors from Limpopo:

Ø  Only source of employment is agriculture (droughts etc. can therefore heavily affect income and as it’s savannah ecosystem, extreme weather is common)

Ø  Not enough land to support families as there is a high population density

Ø  Lack of connection to national electrical service

Ø  Lack of money

Ø  Most households earn less than 1,000 Rand marks but in urban areas such as Gauteng the average is 7175 Rand- 60% if the population lives below poverty line but in Gauteng it’s only 20%

Ø   Lack of schooling

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South Africa Case study 2

Pull factors for Guateng:

Ø  Most urban province and contains 3 major cities therefore contains a huge number of employment opportunities.

Ø  Well paid jobs as only 20% of people live below the poverty line

Ø  Better quality of life: Electrical connection and better leisure and services

Ø  Not dependant on agriculture: Good as Savannah ecosystem therefore doesn’t affect food and money

Ø  Average income:7175 Rand

Ø  Good schooling and most children get educated

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Consequences of migration

Consequences of migration

Ø  Young people leave rural areas for urban areas

Ø  Young workforce in urban area decreases

Ø  Area more dependant on older workforce for agriculture etc. so food production slows down and farming is more inefficient

Ø  Less crop exports to city

Ø  Guateng gains a younger workforce so their economy grows in value due to their labour

Ø  However as it’s an LEDC, not enough investment in infrastructure and therefore there are too few roads for increase in population

Ø  Congestion and pollution results

Ø  Lack of living space results in shanty towns

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Malawi Case study

  • High death rate:  There is a high death rate due to the fact that malaria is prominent there- there is also a lack of medical facilities and those that exist are usually unaccessable for people of rural areas and medicine is too expensive for people to afford. 
  • The lack of contraception has also led to a high number of HIV cases which is not curable so a lot of women die as a result and there may be child birth complications which can put women at risk. People with HIV also have a weak immune system so more susceptible to HIV. So high infant mortality
  • 28% of the population has malaria
  • 83% population in rural areas where there's a lack of hospitals and mud houses attrack mosquitoes.
  • 12% women HIV positive
  • High Birth rate:
  • Children help work on farm so many children for that reason
  • Lack of contraception
  • Traditional in Africa as a whole to have many children
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Pros and cons of 1 child policy

Pros: The overall population increase rate was bought down to 17 million instead of 40 million

Increase access to education for children

Free education for those who follow the policy- good for parents who would've otherwise been unable to afford it.

Increased no. of working oppertunities for women- children don't hinder careers

Cons: Could threaten financial income of rural livers who need big families

Distortion of chinese population- women less prefered so aborted

Forced abortions occured

Falling birth rate- aeging population issue

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Problems and benefitsRe with an aegin population

  • Pensions could decreased 
  • Tax could rise to pay pension
  • Retirement age may increase
  • Migration encouraged (this is bad for some)
  • Not enough people to keep economy going i.e. working for 
  • Doctors refuse to set up services in areas with high elderly population due to ecoonomic  strain
  • More people demanding of expensive care
  • For every 50 retirees, 100 workers. Risk that in the future there won't be enough to care for retirees.
  • Working population expected to drop by 34% by 2060
  • Older retirees are consumers so create jobs 
  • use facilities in morning
  • jobs for migrants
  • money in goes to public spending
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Strategies to reduce this problem

  • Increased migration of working aged people (aeging poplation provides more jobs for these people)
  • Reduce money spent on pensions as it is double the UK amount
  • Increase the retirement age so that the working population increases
  • Utilise old people i.e. Grandparents look after younger children
  • Make it easier for women to have kids- increase the birth rate.

Factors which affect birth rates:

  • Personal choice: People choose to have babies and this can lead to a higher rate of birth
  • Lack/availability of contraception
  • Financial securance
  • Security for parents
  • Inheritance
  • Tradition/culture
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Strategies to combat malaria

Insesticide treated bed nets: Costs under £3 so more people would be able to afford this. Use of it is increasing now. 8% in 1997. 50% now. Easy to use

Howeer, some people in rural areas can't afford it. It needs to be retreated every 6-12 months- can't afford this or too far from hospitals to do this. Mosquitoes are also developing resistance to the insesticide.

Anti-malarial drugs: Developed due to resistance of above. People need to take it ASAP to stand a better chance of reistance. It's a longer term solution. In rural areas, not everyone has access to these and poor people can't afford the treatement.

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