CH. 21 The enlightenment, Nationalism, Revolutions


Scientific Revolution

  • Northern Scientific Thinking
  • empiricism
  • Science helped by correspondance of scholars
  • Science showed world ordered/ rational
  • Natural laws applied to to rational/ orderly progress of gov./ society----> enlightnment thinking
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The enlightnement

  • How to apply reason to discover natural law and make infinite progress
  • apply principles to gov and society
  • religious toleration (voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau)
  • English form of rep. gov
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An age of new ideas

  • Enlightnment=optimistic 
  • Natural laws goverened the social/political sphere
  • "Deism"= divinity set natural laws in motion, but didn't cause miracles
  • New ideas on how to improve society
  • Clash between new ideas and old political structures----> revolutions

- 2 rev aims: independence from imperial powers, constutional representation

  • Nationalism caused breakup of empires and emergence of new form of gov. 
  • Nationalism threatned multi-ethnic empires in europe
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Enlightened Despots

  • European monarchs enlightned in serving interests of subjects, despotic in carrying out ideas
  • Believed in progress/reason but also wanted to remain in control
  • Expand empires, build canals, invest in industry/edu. 
  • religiously tolerant
  • suppresed disent (secret police)
  • Ruled without legaslative bodies
  • Asian rulers= less progressive---->empires decline in territory/ prestige
  • Ottoman empire: Sultsnd imposed enlightnement reforms opposed by conservative groups: janaissaries/ ulma( religious experts)e

ex: sultan Selim 3 suspended reforms to make army more efficent, to centralize gov., standardize taxes

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The anatomy of revolution

  • Each rev. had unique revolutionary circumstances/outcomes

1. Citizens became dissatisfied with gov.

2. moderates gain more power

3. Radicals take over in "terror phase" (france)

4. The process culminates in a period of relative calm and acceptance or the " Thermidorean Reaction" 

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The American Revolution

  • Great distances seperated colonists from parliment/king
  • Success shaped by merit in America
  • Free market
  • Colonists got help from france
  • British-U.S treaty of Paris of 1783---> 13 colonies got independence 
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