Cell types and function

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Plasma membrane

surface of animal cells  surface of plant cell, Regulates mvt of substances in and out of cells, has receptor molecules to allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones

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Folds in the plasma membrane that increase surface area for absorbtion e.g. epithelial cells in small intestine

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Large organelle containing chromatin which is made from proteins and DNA and a structure called the nucleolous.

 Surrounded by a nucleur envelope containing pores to allow substances such as RNA in and out of cells.

Nucleolous is where ribosomes are made

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Round organelle surrounded by a membrane

Contains enzymes to help digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of the cell

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Very small organelle that floats free in cytoplasm or is attatched to rough ER

 Site where proteins are made

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Two types rough and smooth

Smooth ER- system of membranes eclosing a fluid filled space.

Rough- Same but is covered in ribosomes

Smooth ER synthesises and processes lipids

Rought ER folds and process proteins that have been made at ribosomes

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Golgi Apparatus

Group of fluid filled sacs

Processes and packages new lipids and proteins, which are transported elsewhere by vesicles.

Makes lysosomes

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Oval shaped with a double membrane,

Inner membrane is folded to form a structure called cristae

inside is the matrix, contains enzymes involved in respiration

Site of aerobis respiration, aerobis respiration produces ATP- common energy source in cells

Large numbers of mitochondrion are found in active cells that require a lot of energy.

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Epithelial cells

Finger like projections called villi to increase surface area for absorbtion

cells on surface of villi have microvilli to increase surface area even more

have lots of mitochondrion- provide energy for the transport of digested food molecules into the cell.

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Red Blood Cells

adapted for transport of oxygen by....

No nucleus to make more room for haemoglobin to carry oxygen

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Sperm Cells

contain a lot of mitochondrion to provide the large amounts of energy they need to propel themselves towards the egg.

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