Cell cycles and life cycles are not all the same.

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Natural and Artificial Clones.

-Genetically identical cells are called clones.

-All the BACTERIA in a single COLONY have been produced by one cell dividing (binary fission), and they are also CLONES.


-They have single, naked (meaning not associated with histone proteins) strand of DNA in their CYTOPLASM...not in a nucleus.

-They may also have small PLASMIDS of DNA which may have GENES for ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE.

-Bacteria divide by BINARY FISSION not mitosis.

-Mitosis refers to cell division involving chromosomes. 

-Many plants undergo ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION using SPECIALISED parts of the plant that are derived from adult plant cells. These specialised parts of the plant cna produce many new individual organisism that are genetically identical to the original parent. 

-They are also called CLONES and this form of asexual reproduction is called VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION.

-ARTIFICIAL CLONING consists of for example taking cuttings from some plants and then they can be made to grow into adult plants. They are all genetically identical to the parent from where the cuttings were taken from, ao therefore they are clones of the parent. They are also genetically identical to each other.

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Stem cells

-Stem cells have the capability to divide and develop into any of several differnt cell types.

-Totipotent Stem Cells= Stem cells from young embryos that can develop into any of the cell types found in the adult. 

-Pluripotent Stem Cells= Stem cells that are found in small numbers in adult tissues. They can develop into several different cell types. 

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