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2.1

DNA = DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID DOUBLE HELIX MADE UP OF NUCLEOTIDES

NUCLEOTIDE = UNIT OF DNA WITH PENTOSE SUGAR, PHOSPHATE AND A NITROGENOUS BASE, HYDROGEN BONDS BETWEEN COMPLEMENTARY BASE PAIRS, PHOSPHODIESTER BOND BETWEEN SUGAR AND PHOSPATE FORMED IN CONDENSATION REACTION, MULTIPLE MAKE POLYNUCLEOTIDE, STRANDS RUN IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS

(http://ib.bioninja.com.au/_Media/nucleotide-schematic_med.jpeg)

RNA = SHORT SINGLE HELIX, RIBOSE SUGAR, URACIL REPLACES THYMINE

ADAPTED = STABLE STRUCTURE, LARGE SO CAN STORE LOTS OF INFO, BACKBONE PROTECTS BASES FROM DAMAGE, BASE PAIRS ALLOW IT TO REPLICATE TO TRANSFER INFO

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2.2

REPLICATION = SEMI-CONSERVATIVE ENSURES DNA STAYS THE SAME 

  • DNA HELICASE UNZIPS HELIX BY BREAKING HYDROGEN BONDS BETWEEN BASES
  • EXPOSED NUCLEOTIDE ACTS AS TEMPLATE, SO FREE NUCLEOTIDES PAIR TO COMPLMENTARY BASES USING DNA POLYMERASE
  • EACH NEW STRAND IS IDENTICAL TO THE ORIGINAL 

(http://www.di.uq.edu.au/sparq/images/dnarepfig2.jpg)

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2.3

ATP = ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE, MADE OF ADENINE, RIBOSE SUGAR AND THREE POSPHATES, BONDS BETWEEN PHOSPHATES HAVE LOW ACTIVATION ENERGY SO EASILY BROKEN, WHEN BROKEN ENERGY RELEASED CATALYSED USING ATP HYDROLASE, ATP + H20 = ADP + Pi + ENERGY, REVERSIBLE REACTION USING ATP SYNTHASE ADDING A PHOSPHATE

USES = IMMEDIATE ENERGY SOURCE, USED IN METABOLIC PROCESSES, MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND ACTIVE TRANSPORT

(http://study.com/cimages/multimages/16/ATP.jpg)

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3.7

MITOSIS = DIVISION OF CELL TO PRODUCE TWO IDENTICAL DAUGHTER CELLS

INTERPHASE = G1 - ORGANELLES REPLICATE, S - DNA SYNTHESIS, G2 - ORGANELLE REPLICATION

PROPHASE = CHROMOSOMES VISIBLE, NUCLEAR ENVELOPE BREAKS DOWN

METAPHASE = SPINDLE FIBRES ATTACH TO CENTROMERES PULLING CHROMASOMES TO EQUATOR OF THE CELL

ANAPHASE = SPINDLE FIBRES PULL INDIVIDUAL CHROMATIDS TO OPPOSITE POLES

TELOPHASE = NEW NUCLEAR ENVELOPE FORMS, SPINDLE FIBRES DISINTEGRATE

CYTOKINESIS = CYTOPLASM DIVIDES FORMING TWO IDENTICAL DAUGHTER CELLS

PROKARYOTES = DIVIDE BY BINARY FISSION, CIRCULAR DNA AND PLASMIDS REPLICATE, CYDOPLASM DIVIDES EACH WITH COPY OF CIRCULAR DNA 

VIRUSES = REPLICATE BY INJECTING NUCLEIC ACID IN HOST CELL MAKING IT PRODUCE VIRAL COMPONENTS ASSEMBLED INTO NEW VIRUSES

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3.8

CELL CYCLE = INTERPHASE, NUCLEAR DIVISION, CYTOKINESIS

CANCER = DAMAGE OR MUTATION OF GENES REGULATING MITOSIS CAN CAUSE UNCONTROLLED CELL DIVISION AND MAY LEAD TO FORMATION OF TUMOURS, BENIGN GROW STEADILY UNLIKELY TO BE LIFE THREATENING, MALIGNANT GROW FAST AND CAN SPREAD

TREATMENT = STOPPING PART OF THE CELL CYCLE, PREVENTS DNA REPLICATING OR INTERFERES WITH SPINDLE FIBRE FORMATION, PROBLEM IS THAT IT AFFECTS HEALTHY CELLS AS THEY ALSO DIVIDE

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