Cell Organelles

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EUKARYOTE

a eukaryote is any organism consisting of one or more cells containing DNA in a membrane bound nucleus seperate from cytoplams

  • animal cells
  • plant cells
  • algal cells
  • fungal cells
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ANIMAL CELL ORGANELLES

  • CSM
  • nucleus
  • nucleolus 
  • nuclear envelope 
  • rough endo-plasmic reticulum
  • smooth ER
  • lysosome
  • ribsosome
  • golgi apparatus
  • golgi vesicle
  • cytoplasm
  • mitochondria
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OTHER CELLS

PLANT: Same organelles as animal cells but with extras;

  • cellulose cell wall
  • vacuole
  • chloroplasts

ALGAL: cells also carry out photosynthesis, and can be unicellular (chlorella) or multicellular (seaweed) 

  • same organelles as plants but chloroplasts are different sizes and shapes

FUNGAL: also can be multicellular (mushrooms) or unicellular (yeast), like plant cells but;

  • cell walls made of chitin not cellulose
  • no chloroplasts 
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NUCLEUS

  • controls the activities of the cell through manufacturing MRNA and TRNA
  • contains DNA in the form of chromosomes 

Envelope: double membrane surrounding which controls entry and exit of materials in and out of cells 

Nuclear Pores: allows passage of large molecules e.g. messenger RNA out of nucleus 

Nucleolus: manufactures ribosomal RNA and assembles ribosomes

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MITOCHONDRIA

  • site of aerobic respiration 
  • responsible for production of ATP 

has a double membrane; outer controls entry and exit of materials and inner is folded to form cristae

  • cristae - large surface area for attachment of enzymes and proteins in respiration
  • matrix makes up remainder - contains enzymes for respiration
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ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

ROUGH ER

system of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space, continuous with outher nuclear membrane covered in ribosomes 

  • folds and processes proteins made at ribosomes
  • large surface area for synthesis of proteins/glycoproteins

SMOOTH ER

same as rough ER but with no ribosomes 

  • synthesises, stroes and processes lipids and carbohydrates 
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GOLGI

APPARATUS:

Group of fluid filed membrane bound flattened sacs; proteins and lipids produced by ER pass through

  • processes and packages lipids and proteins
  • makes lysosomes 
  • produces secretory enzymes

VESICLE:

small fluid filled sac in cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane and produced by golgi apparatus

  • stores lipids and proteins made by apparatus
  • transports them out of the cell
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LYSOSOME and RIBOSOME

LYSOSOME

formed when a golgi vesicle digestive contains enzymes - lysozymes

  • break down materials ingested by phagocytic cells e.g. white blood cells
  • release enzymes to outside of cell - exocytosis 
  • digests worn out components

RIBOSOME 

small cytoplasmic granules found in cytoplasm or attached to rough ER, made of proteins and RNA

  • site of protein synthesis 
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CHLOROPLASTS

organelles surrounded by a double membrane;has membranes inside known as thykaloid membranes; these can be stacked up to form grana 

  • grana linekd together via lamella (flat pieces of thykaloid membrane)
  • contain chlorophly which absorb sunlight 
  • stroma is fluid filled matrix where 2nd stage of photosynthesis happens
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VACUOLE

membrane bound organelle found in cytoplasm containing cell sap; surrounding membrane is known as tonoplast

  • makes cell turgid - provides support
  • maintains pressure 
  • stops plants wilting
  • isolates unwanted chemcials 
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CELL WALL

rigid structyre srrounding cells in plants, algae and funghi

  • plants: cellulose
  • funghi: chittin

provides mechanical support to prevent the cell changing shape

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