C4 - Chemical Economics

C4 module

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Acids and Bases

Reaction between acids and bases is called NEUTRALISATION.

Acid + Base --> Salt + Water

H+ + OH-  --> H20

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Reactions of Acids

Acid + Metal Oxide --> Salt + Water

Acid + Metal Hydroxide --> Salt + Water

The above are neutralisation reactions.

Acid + Carbonate --> Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Acid + Ammonia --> Ammonium Salt


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Percentage Yield

Percentage Yield = actual yield (grams)

                              predicted yield (grams)  x 100

How product or reactant is lost:

1) Evaporation

2) Heating

3) Filtration

4) Transferring Liquids


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Fertilisers

Ammonia can be neutralised with acids to produce fertilisers:

Ammonia + Nitric Acid --> Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonia + Sulfuric Acid --> Ammonium Sulfate

(Neutralisation Reactions; Ammonium Salts Produced)

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Fertilisers

Percentage Mass of an element in a compound =

Relative Atomic Mass x No. of atoms

Relative Formula Mass 

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The Haber Process

The Haber Process:

N2 + 3H2 <---> 2NH3 

It is a reversible reaction.

The N2 and the H2 which don't react are recycled.

Industrial Conditions:

 Pressure - 200 Atmospheres

Temperature - 450degrees 

Catalyst - Iron

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Cost of Production

Cost of Production depends on:

  • Price of Energy
  • Cost of Raw Materials
  • Labour Costs
  • Plant Costs (Equipment)
  • Rate of Production

Optimum Conditions are those that give the Lowest Production Cost.

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