Acids and Bases
Reaction between acids and bases is called NEUTRALISATION.
Acid + Base --> Salt + Water
H+ + OH- --> H20
Reactions of Acids
Acid + Metal Oxide --> Salt + Water
Acid + Metal Hydroxide --> Salt + Water
The above are neutralisation reactions.
Acid + Carbonate --> Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Acid + Ammonia --> Ammonium Salt
Percentage Yield = actual yield (grams)
predicted yield (grams) x 100
How product or reactant is lost:
4) Transferring Liquids
Ammonia can be neutralised with acids to produce fertilisers:
Ammonia + Nitric Acid --> Ammonium Nitrate
Ammonia + Sulfuric Acid --> Ammonium Sulfate
(Neutralisation Reactions; Ammonium Salts Produced)
Percentage Mass of an element in a compound =
Relative Atomic Mass x No. of atoms
Relative Formula Mass
The Haber Process
The Haber Process:
N2 + 3H2 <---> 2NH3
It is a reversible reaction.
The N2 and the H2 which don't react are recycled.
Pressure - 200 Atmospheres
Temperature - 450degrees
Catalyst - Iron
Cost of Production
Cost of Production depends on:
- Price of Energy
- Cost of Raw Materials
- Labour Costs
- Plant Costs (Equipment)
- Rate of Production
Optimum Conditions are those that give the Lowest Production Cost.