C3.6 Organic Chemistry

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  • Created by: Fiona S
  • Created on: 09-04-15 10:30

Organic Chemistry

Study of compounds containing carbon.

1C = meth___
2C = eth___
3C = prop___
4C = but___
5C = pent___
6C = hex___

We have looked at:

  • Alkanes CnH2n+2
  • Alkenes CnH2n

Now we will learn 3 new homologous series (or families)

Compounds in a homologous series behave the same way chemically as they have the same functional group

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1. Alcohols

Functional Group = -O-H

(http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-v27tqZW0Rn0/TuODVTQK_lI/AAAAAAAADns/bdiZsurYcPU/s1600/Ethanol-2D-flat.png)

Naming ___ol

Methanol CH3OH
Ethanol C2H5OH
Propanol C3H7OH
Butanol C4H9OH  etc.

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1. Alcohols

Properties

  • Soluble in water
  • Neutral pH (7/green)
  • Good solvent
  • Can react with Carboxylic acid to make esters
  • Alcohols make good fuels
    general formula CnH2n+1OH
  • Alcohols will react with sodium to give soldium alkoxide and hydrogen
    Sodium + ethanol --> Sodium ethoxide + hydroxide

Meths or industrial methylated spirits is ethanol, methanol and dye.

No tax so cheap to buy. Methanol (toxic) added to stop people drinking it.

Dye (purple) added to warn it's toxic.

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2. Carboxylic Acid

Functional Group: (http://faculty.chem.queensu.ca/people/faculty/mombourquette/FirstYrChem/organic/acid.gif)

Naming: ___oic acid

1) Methanoic Acid    2) Ethanoic Acid      3) Propanoic Acid

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2. Carboxylic Acid

Properties

  • Weak Acid
    Dissolve in water and release some H+ ions
    CH3COOH <--> CH3COO- + H+
  • Effervecence when added to metal carbonate
    Sodium Carbonate + ethanoic acid --> Sodium Ethanote + CO2 +H2O
  • Can react with alcohols to make esters
  • General Formula CnH2n+1COOH 
  • Alcohols can be oxidised to carboxylic acids. They can react with oxygen in the air
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3. Esters

Made by reacting an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
Sulphuric acid catalyst

(http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/f132bbfe11f0c16d31b7c971733e08e570fd9826.gif)

Naming is done backwards. Start with the alcohol then the carboxylic acid.
Ethene = Ethanol = Ethyl
Propane = Propanoic Acid = Propanoate

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3. Esters

Properties

  • Uses: Flavourings(sweets) and Perfumes
  • Flammable
  • Irritant
  • Don't dissolve in water
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